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Midlands Yorkshire Wales Scotland Ireland: Hospital, Winchmore Hill N. The "houseless poor" — variously known as vagrants, tramps, rogues, vagabonds, and travellers, have always lived on the edge of society often the subject of distrust.
They were also regularly the target of legislation — as early as the seventh century a law was framed to make those who entertained travellers responsible for any misdemeanours they committed.
In the fourteenth century, in the aftermath of the Black Death , when labour was in short supply and wages were rising steeply, several Acts were passed aimed at forcing all able-bodied men to work and keeping wages at their old levels.
These measures led to labourers roaming around the country looking for areas where the wages were high and where the labour laws were not too strictly enforced. Some also took to begging under the pretence of being ill or crippled.
In , the Ordinance of Labourers prohibited private individuals from giving relief to able-bodied beggars. In , the Statute of Cambridge introduced regulations restricting the movements of all labourers and beggars. Labourers wishing to move out of their own county "Hundred" needed a letter of authority from the "good man of the Hundred" — the local Justice of the Peace — or risked being put in the stocks.
A century later, in , the Vagabonds and Beggars Act determined that: Every beggar suitable to work shall resort to the Hundred where he last dwelled, is best known, or was born and there remain upon the pain aforesaid. The Act condemned " An Act of aimed to suppress the "roaming beggar" by empowering parish officers to "appoint meet and convenient places for the habitations and abidings" of such classes — one of the first references to what was subsequently to evolve into the workhouse.
In , an Act for the Repression of Vagrancy required than anyone deemed to be a rogue, vagabond, or sturdy beggar, who was found begging could be "stripped naked from the middle upwards and openly whipped until his or her body be bloody, and then passed to his or her birthplace or last residence.
Those falling within the scope of this Act included:. Over the next two centuries, this list was amended periodically to include any class of person now considered undesirable such as "end-gatherers" persons buying ends of cloth , poachers, unlicensed lottery ticket dealers, persons "in possession of burglarious implements", and so on.
The Settlement Act of made wandering an offence and gave magistrates the power to order the removal of travellers back to their place of settlement. The Act also authorized the arrest of rogues, vagrants, sturdy beggars, or idle or disorderly persons, and their committal to a workhouses or House of Correction an early form of prison , or transportation for seven years to English plantations.
In the eighteenth century, the troublesome business of detaining, maintaining, and conveying vagrants in a county, was often handed over to a paid contractor or "farmer" along similar lines to that employed by parishes for farming their poor. The contractor would receive an agreed amount for each vagrant he maintained for a maximum of say three days and for each that was conveyed to the county borders. During the same period, an informal system grew up of magistrates issuing passes which would allow the bearer to travel unmolested to a named destination and in cases to request a night's board or a few pence for a day's subsistence from an overseer or churchwarden.
However, the pass system was widely abused and was in fact increasing vagrancy rather than reducing it. By , a Parliamentary Select Committee estimated that around 60, people were perpetually circulating around the country at the public's expense.
The Committee concluded that the pass system "has been found to be one of inefficiency, cozenage and fraud. A new Vagrancy Act followed in which dictated that every "every Petty Chapman or Pedlar wandering abroad and trading, without being duly licensed In addition, every person "wandering abroad and lodging in any Barn or Outhouse, or in any deserted or unoccupied Building, or in the open Air, or under a Tent, or in any Cart or Waggon, not having any visible Means of Subsistence, and not giving a Good Account of himself or herself Exceptions could made for discharged prisoners to beg their way home, and for soldiers, sailors, marines and their wives to beg.
Natives of Scotland, Ireland and the Channel Islands were also allowed to pass without punishment as these places had no formal system of settlement to which such persons could be legally removed.
As a result, habitual vagrants could simply declare themselves to be from Dublin or Glasgow or Jersey and thus remain on the road. The Poor Law Amendment Act of made no mention of vagrants, with the result of new union workhouses making no provision for them, and Boards of Guardians regarding vagrancy as a matter for the police rather than the poor law.
The settlement laws, too, still operated so that a union was obliged to offer relief only to those holding legal settlement within its boundaries. However, tramps continued to claim relief at union workhouses which, it turned out, were usually located within a day's walk of one another.
Several instances of tramps dying from exposure or starvation after being turned away from the workhouse door resulted in the Poor Law Commissioners having to compromise. In , a new regulation was introduced which required food and a night's shelter to be given to any destitute person in case of "sudden or urgent necessity" in return them performing a task of work.
This change of heart led to accommodation for vagrants becoming a standard feature of workhouses. At first, this was often provided in existing infectious wards which were often separated from the main workhouse and recognised that tramps often carried contagious diseases such as measles. Gradually, however, purpose-built blocks were added, usually of a single storey and located near the workhouse entrance.
They were designed to provide the most basic level of accommodation, inferior to that in the main workhouse. One observer in reported that they were:. These quarters were known by various names such as tramp wards, vagrant wards, or casual wards — with their occupants officially referred to as the "casual poor", or just as "casuals".
Another term that became popular for the tramps' block was "the spike" — a name whose origins are much debated with the most popular being:. The routine for those entering a casual ward began in late afternoon by joining the queue for admission. A spike had only a certain number of beds and late-comers might find themselves turned away. A London Casual Ward - waiting for admission, Casuals waiting at entrance to Whitechapel's Thomas Street casual ward, A spike could be staffed in a variety of ways.
Sometimes the duties could be combined with that of the workhouse porter, with his wife supervising the female casuals. Some spikes were in the charge of a "Tramp Major", probably a former tramp himself, and now employed by the workhouse. Advertisement for a porter and tramps' attendant, When the spike opened at 5 or 6 o'clock in the evening, the new arrivals would be searched and any money, tobacco or alcohol confiscated.
It was common practice for vagrants to hide such possessions in a nearby hedge before entering the spike. According to George Orwell's account of a visit to a spike possibly the one at Godstone reveals that it was an unspoken rule that searches never went below the knee so that illicit goods could be hidden in the boots or stuffed into the bottoms of trouser legs.
Entrants then had to strip and bathe in water that may already been used by a number of others. They were then issued with a blanket and a workhouse nightshirt to wear while their own clothes being fumigated, dried, and stored. Each was then given a supper, typically 8 ounces of bread and a pint of gruel or "skilly" as it was colloquially known , before being locked up for the night from 7 p.
A London Casual Ward - the disinfecting room, Vagrants' drying room, Sheffield. Until the s, the norm was for casual wards to have communal dormitories where the inmates either slept in rows of low-slung hammocks or on the bare floor. In , the Metropolitan Houseless Poor Act introduced new guidelines for the facilities to be provided in casual wards in the capital. Separate wards were to be provided for men and for women and children, each having a yard with a bathroom and water-closet, and a work shed.
It was also recommended that wards have raised sleeping platforms, divided down the middle by a gangway, and each side divided up by boards to give a sleeping space of at least two feet three inches. A narrow shelf along each side of the room provided a shelf at the head of each compartment where clothes could be placed. Bedding was to consist of coarse "straw or cocoa fibre in a loose tick", and a rug "sufficient for warmth".
A temporary casual ward, designed by Henry Saxon Snell and clearly based on these recommendations, was erected at St Marylebone workhouse in Its walls were heavily decorated with religious texts no doubt designed to "improve" the buildings occupants. In , workhouses had been given the power to detain male tramps for up to four hours while they performed the required task of work.
One common work task was oakum picking where a certain weight usually one or two pounds of old rope had to be unpicked into its constituent fibres — the resulting product could then be sold off hence the expression "money for old rope"!
Men picking oakum at Whitechapel Casual Ward, Stone-breaking was another task favoured by Boards of Guardians. Note only was it hard work, but the amount broken typically two hundredweight was easily measured, and the resulting small stones could be sold off for road-making.
Hackney workhouse stone yard c. For female casual, the work given could also include oakum-picking but was often washing, scrubbing or cleaning. Once vagrants had done their stint of work, they were given a lump of bread and released to go on their way.
However, even with an early start to the work, this meant that only half the day remained to tramp to another workhouse. The Casual Poor Act of made it a requirement for casuals to be detained for two nights, with the full day in between spent performing work.
The casuals could then be released at 9 a. Return to the same spike was not allowed within 30 days with the penalty being four nights detention with three days work being performed in between. A warning to vagrants at Witney workhouse. Courtesy of Newsquest Oxfordshire Ltd.
To avoid this penalty, tramping circuits evolved linking a long progression of spikes before eventually returning to the first.
Nights at a spike might interspersed with sleeping rough or in farm outhouses, especially in the summer months. Those entering the casual ward on a Saturday evening were detained an extra day since no work was performed on Sunday.
George Orwell's account of a Spike describes a desultory Sunday where the inmates were locked up for the day:. From around , a new form of vagrants' accommodation began to be adopted, developed by the architect Henry Saxon Snell. It consisted of individual cells, very much like those in a prison, usually arranged along both sides of a corridor. Sleeping cells contained a simple bed, perhaps hinged so that it could be folded up against the wall when not in use.
Work cells were usually fitted out for stone-breaking, typically with a hinged metal grille which could be opened from the outside to allow unbroken lumps of stone to be deposited in the cell. The inmate then had to break up the stone into lumps small enough to pass back through the holes in the grille, or in a separate horizontal grid fitted beneath it. The broken stone could then be collected on the outside. There were variations in the design of stone-breaking cells — some had a bench on which the stone was broken, in others the work was done on the floor.
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Maths Made Easy is the leading provider of exceptional GCSE Maths revision materials for the GCSE Maths course for AQA, Edexcel and OCR. After St Neots (or St Neot's, St Neotts, St Neott's) Poor Law Union was formed on 24th September Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians, 34 in number, representing its 30 constituent parishes as listed below (figures in brackets indicate numbers of Guardians if more than one). Find everything you need for the GCSE Maths Higher Tier papers including past papers, revision materials and worksheets for the new course.