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President Barack Obama , during a visit to Germany, stated that the NSA's data gathering practices constitute "a circumscribed, narrow system directed at us being able to protect our people. The slide presentation stated that much of the world's electronic communications pass through the U.
FAA Operations, and map. Tasking, Points to Remember. Wikimedia Commons keeps copies of the leaked PowerPoint slides here: PRISM surveillance program along with other associated documents. Bush Administration but was widely criticized and challenged as illegal, because it did not include warrants obtained from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. In the act was renewed by Congress under President Obama for an additional five years, through December According to this report, PRISM is only used to collect internet communications, not telephone conversations.
These internet communications are not collected in bulk, but in a targeted way: Under this directive, the provider is legally obliged to hand over to DITU all communications to or from the selectors provided by the government. Internal NSA presentation slides included in the various media disclosures show that the NSA could unilaterally access data and perform "extensive, in-depth surveillance on live communications and stored information" with examples including email, video and voice chat, videos, photos, voice-over-IP chats such as Skype , file transfers, and social networking details.
According to The Washington Post , the intelligence analysts search PRISM data using terms intended to identify suspicious communications of targets whom the analysts suspect with at least 51 percent confidence to not be U. Also according to The Guardian's Glenn Greenwald even low-level NSA analysts are allowed to search and listen to the communications of Americans and other people without court approval and supervision.
Greenwald said low level Analysts can, via systems like PRISM, "listen to whatever emails they want, whatever telephone calls, browsing histories, Microsoft Word documents. He added that the NSA databank, with its years of collected communications, allows analysts to search that database and listen "to the calls or read the emails of everything that the NSA has stored, or look at the browsing histories or Google search terms that you've entered, and it also alerts them to any further activity that people connected to that email address or that IP address do in the future.
Shortly after publication of the reports by The Guardian and The Washington Post , the United States Director of National Intelligence , James Clapper , on June 7, released a statement confirming that for nearly six years the government of the United States had been using large Internet services companies such as Facebook to collect information on foreigners outside the United States as a defense against national security threats.
They contain numerous inaccuracies. It cannot be used to intentionally target any U. On June 7, U. President Barack Obama , referring to the PRISM program [ citation needed ] and the NSA's telephone calls logging program, said, "What you've got is two programs that were originally authorized by Congress, have been repeatedly authorized by Congress.
Bipartisan majorities have approved them. Congress is continually briefed on how these are conducted. There are a whole range of safeguards involved. And federal judges are overseeing the entire program throughout. You know, we're going to have to make some choices as a society. On June 8, , Director of National Intelligence Clapper made an additional public statement about PRISM and released a fact sheet providing further information about the program, which he described as "an internal government computer system used to facilitate the government's statutorily authorized collection of foreign intelligence information from electronic communication service providers under court supervision, as authorized by Section of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act FISA 50 U.
All such information is obtained with FISA Court approval and with the knowledge of the provider based upon a written directive from the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence , subsequently criticized the fact sheet as being inaccurate. The fact sheet was withdrawn from the NSA's website around June On June 18, NSA Director Alexander said in an open hearing before the House Intelligence Committee of Congress that communications surveillance had helped prevent more than 50 potential terrorist attacks worldwide at least 10 of them involving terrorism suspects or targets in the United States between and , and that the PRISM web traffic surveillance program contributed in over 90 percent of those cases.
In contrast to their swift and forceful reactions the previous day to allegations that the government had been conducting surveillance of United States citizens' telephone records, Congressional leaders initially had little to say about the PRISM program the day after leaked information about the program was published. Several lawmakers declined to discuss PRISM, citing its top-secret classification,  and others said that they had not been aware of the program.
Following these statements some lawmakers from both parties warned national security officials during a hearing before the House Judiciary Committee that they must change their use of sweeping National Security Agency surveillance programs or face losing the provisions of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act that have allowed for the agency's mass collection of telephone metadata. Otherwise, in two and a half years, you're not going to have it anymore.
Leaks of classified documents pointed to the role of a special court in enabling the government's secret surveillance programs, but members of the court maintained they were not collaborating with the executive branch.
Congress pressed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to release declassified versions of its secret ruling, the court dismissed those requests arguing that the decisions can't be declassified because they contain classified information. There is a rigorous review process of applications submitted by the executive branch, spearheaded initially by five judicial branch lawyers who are national security experts, and then by the judges, to ensure that the court's authorizations comport with what the applicable statutes authorize.
These statistics do not reflect the fact that many applications are altered to prior or final submission or even withheld from final submission entirely, often after an indication that a judge would not approve them. Polli had publicly stated in that he had received requests from US intelligence agencies to do things that would be in violation of Austrian law, which Polli refused to allow.
The Australian government has said it will investigate the impact of the PRISM program and the use of the Pine Gap surveillance facility on the privacy of Australian citizens. Brazil 's president at the time, Dilma Rousseff , responded to Snowden's reports that the NSA spied on her phone calls and emails by cancelling a planned October state visit to the United States, demanding an official apology, which by October 20, , hadn't come. On 20 October a committee at the European Parliament backed a measure that, if it is enacted, would require American companies to seek clearance from European officials before complying with United States warrants seeking private data.
The legislation has been under consideration for two years. The vote is part of efforts in Europe to shield citizens from online surveillance in the wake of revelations about a far-reaching spying program by the U. Paris prosecutors had opened preliminary inquiries into the NSA program in July, but Fabius said, "… obviously we need to go further" and "we must quickly assure that these practices aren't repeated.
After finding out about the PRISM program, the Mexican Government has started constructing its own spying program to spy on its own citizens. But they have all the partners doing it for them and then they share all the information.
At a meeting of European Union leaders held the week of 21 October , Mariano Rajoy , Spain's prime minister, said that "spying activities aren't proper among partner countries and allies". On 28 October the Spanish government summoned the American ambassador, James Costos , to address allegations that the U. They found in each case a warrant for interception was in place in accordance with the legal safeguards contained in UK law. In August , The Guardian newspaper's offices were visited by agents from GCHQ, who ordered and supervised the destruction of the hard drives containing information acquired from Snowden.
Corporate executives of several companies identified in the leaked documents told The Guardian that they had no knowledge of the PRISM program in particular and also denied making information available to the government on the scale alleged by news reports.
In response to the technology companies' denials of the NSA being able to directly access the companies' servers, The New York Times reported that sources had stated the NSA was gathering the surveillance data from the companies using other technical means in response to court orders for specific sets of data.
In another classified report obtained by The Post, the arrangement is described as allowing 'collection managers [to send] content tasking instructions directly to equipment installed at company-controlled locations,' rather than directly to company servers.
I wouldn't be surprised if they were subject to a gag order. The New York Times reported on June 7, , that "Twitter declined to make it easier for the government.
But other companies were more compliant, according to people briefed on the negotiations. While providing data in response to a legitimate FISA request approved by the FISA Court is a legal requirement, modifying systems to make it easier for the government to collect the data is not. This is why Twitter could legally decline to provide an enhanced mechanism for data transmission.
In response to the publicity surrounding media reports of data-sharing, several companies requested permission to reveal more public information about the nature and scope of information provided in response to National Security requests. On June 14, , Facebook reported that the U. That same day, Microsoft reported that for the same period, it received "between 6, and 7, criminal and national security warrants, subpoenas and orders affecting between 31, and 32, consumer accounts from U.
Google issued a statement criticizing the requirement that data be reported in aggregated form, stating that lumping national security requests with criminal request data would be "a step backwards" from its previous, more detailed practices on its website's transparency report.
The company said that it would continue to seek government permission to publish the number and extent of FISA requests. Cisco Systems saw a huge drop in export sales because of fears that the National Security Agency could be using backdoors in its products. On September 12, , Yahoo! The New York Times editorial board charged that the Obama administration "has now lost all credibility on this issue,"  and lamented that "for years, members of Congress ignored evidence that domestic intelligence-gathering had grown beyond their control, and, even now, few seem disturbed to learn that every detail about the public's calling and texting habits now reside in a N.
James Robertson , a former federal district judge based in Washington who served on the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act court for three years between and and who ruled against the Bush administration in the landmark Hamdan v. Rumsfeld case, said FISA court is independent but flawed because only the government's side is represented effectively in its deliberations. He suggested creating an advocate with security clearance who would argue against government filings.
I don't think that is a judicial function. Daly observed that, "The problem is not just what the National Security Agency is gathering at the risk of our privacy but what it is apparently unable to monitor at the risk of our safety. Ron Paul , a former Republican member of Congress and prominent libertarian , thanked Snowden and Greenwald and denounced the mass surveillance as unhelpful and damaging, urging instead more transparency in U.
New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman defended limited government surveillance programs intended to protect the American people from terrorist acts:. That is why I'll reluctantly, very reluctantly, trade off the government using data mining to look for suspicious patterns in phone numbers called and e-mail addresses—and then have to go to a judge to get a warrant to actually look at the content under guidelines set by Congress—to prevent a day where, out of fear, we give government a license to look at anyone, any e-mail, any phone call, anywhere, anytime.
Political commentator David Brooks similarly cautioned that government data surveillance programs are a necessary evil: Conservative commentator Charles Krauthammer worried less about the legality of PRISM and other NSA surveillance tools than about the potential for their abuse without more stringent oversight. We need a toughening of both congressional oversight and judicial review, perhaps even some independent outside scrutiny.
Plus periodic legislative revision—say, reauthorization every couple of years—in light of the efficacy of the safeguards and the nature of the external threat.
The object is not to abolish these vital programs. It's to fix them. In a blog post, David Simon , the creator of The Wire , compared the NSA's programs, including PRISM, to a s effort by the City of Baltimore to add dialed number recorders to all pay phones to know which individuals were being called by the callers;  the city believed that drug traffickers were using pay phones and pagers, and a municipal judge allowed the city to place the recorders.
The placement of the dialers formed the basis of the show's first season. Simon argued that the media attention regarding the NSA programs is a "faux scandal. Political theorist , and frequent critic of U. But governments will use whatever technology is available to them to combat their primary enemy — which is their own population. Sentiment around the world was that of general displeasure upon learning the extent of world communication data mining.
Some national leaders spoke against the NSA and some spoke against their own national surveillance. One national minister had scathing comments on the National Security Agency's data-mining program, citing Benjamin Franklin: After Carr replied that there was a legal framework to protect Australians but that the government would not comment on intelligence matters, Xenophon argued that this was not a specific answer to his question.
Taliban spokesperson Zabiullah Mujahid said, "We knew about their past efforts to trace our system. We have used our technical resources to foil their efforts and have been able to stop them from succeeding so far. Reactions of internet users in China were mixed between viewing a loss of freedom worldwide and seeing state surveillance coming out of secrecy. The story broke just before U. To me, it's abusively using government powers to interfere in individuals' privacy. This is an important moment for international society to reconsider and protect individual rights.
This is the nature of secret government organizations.
The proposed draft is so flawed that the Commission is unable to properly justify it in the pages of the almost comical Impact Assessment it produced. The proposed draft Regulation provides a very broad definition of terrorist content that is similar to — but different from — the definition in the recently adopted Terrorism Directive currently being transposed into 27 national EU legal frameworks.
The definition includes the following activities:. In a democratic society, this is not acceptable. The Commission has filled in pages with unsupported claims, misreadings of the public consultation on illegal content online, and with many arguments that advocate against having this proposal in the first place. The impact assessment recognises that:. Another example of non-evidence based policy-making is that the impact assessment does not provide an analysis of the costs that would entail setting up the necessary hash databases for automated content removal of content.
And yet, the draft Regulation suggests this as one of the measures to be implemented in all EU Member States. Despite the lack of evidence on how these measures will prevent terrorist attacks and how they will be appropriate and proportionate to conclude that the Regulation is needed, the proposal is here.
It is almost like if the decision had already been made before conducting an assessment of the impact this proposal would have to actually fight terrorism. On that basis, the Commission is supposed to consider whether follow-up actions were needed. Instead of checking the impact of the existing legislation first, the Commission has rushed into a new proposal and is aiming to finalise it before the European Elections in May It is regrettable that legislation is exploited to give citizens a false sense of security, while it is actually undermining their rights and freedoms.
EDRi is following this dossier very closely. As a first step, we will publish a policy paper and suggestions for amendments on the proposed Regulation in the following weeks, as well as a document pool to gather all documentation around this file. Proposal for a Regulation on preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online Impact Assessment accompanying the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online While investigating the robbery and theft of a mobile phone, the Spanish police asked an investigating magistrate to order various providers of electronic communications services to disclose the telephone numbers that had been activated during a twelve-day period with the International Mobile Equipment Identity IMEI code of the stolen mobile device, as well as the names and addresses of the subscribers for the SIM cards used for this activation.
However, the CJEU clarified that if the purpose for accessing the retained data is solely to obtain the subscriber identity, Article 15 1 of ePrivacy Directive allows restrictions of the rights provided for by the Directive for the prevention, investigation, detection, and prosecution of criminal offences — not just serious criminal offences.
To reconcile the two rulings, the CJEU explains that this is because the objective pursued by the access must be proportionate to the seriousness of the interference with the fundamental rights that the access entails.
The Tele2 case is concerned with access to retained data which, taken as a whole, allows precise conclusions to be drawn regarding the private lives of the persons concerned. Such access constitutes a serious interference with fundamental rights and can be justified only by the objective of fighting serious crime. First and foremost, it is important to note that the overlap between the two judgments is fairly small since they are concerned with very different questions:. In contrast, the Ministerio Fiscal case is concerned with the presumably very narrow situation where accessing data does not constitute a serious interference.
This includes obtaining a subscriber identity. However, the CJEU confirms that access to retained data which reveals the date, time, duration and recipients of the communications, or the locations where the communications took place, must be regarded as a serious interference since that data allows precise conclusions to be drawn about the private lives of the persons concerned cf.
In these situations, access to the retained data must be limited to cases involving serious crimes, as in the Tele2 case. There is, however, one scenario where the new judgment may add some confusion to the interpretation of the Tele2 judgment. According to paragraphs of the Tele2 judgment, targeted data retention requirements for the purpose of fighting serious crime are compatible with EU law unlike general and undifferentiated data retention which is illegal under EU law.
Moreover, it would be natural to read paragraph of the Tele2 judgment as always limiting the access to such retained data to cases involving serious crime because the targeted data retention requirement in itself constitutes a serious interference with fundamental rights that can only be justified by the objective of fighting serious crime. Allowing access to the retained data in cases not involving serious crime would arguably undermine the purpose limitation at the retention stage.
The CJEU did not define what can constitute a serious crime. Similarly, the Ministerio Fiscal ruling does not clearly refer to why the data was retained in the first place or whether that should affect the conditions for access to the retained data. Because there is no apparent connection to why the data is retained, the CJEU now seems to say in paragraphs of the Ministerio Fiscal ruling that if access is only sought to minor parts of the retained data, for example only for the purpose of obtaining the subscriber identity, accessing that data does not constitute a serious interference, even if the data is only available in the first place because of a targeted data retention order that can only be justified by the objective of fighting serious crime.
This situation could arise in practice if the data retention order includes all data items in the annulled Data Retention Directive for a targeted group of persons, but access to the retained data is only requested for the purpose of determining the identity of a subscriber who has been assigned a specific dynamic IP address. Leaving aside this potential weakening of the strict Tele2 conditions for access to retained data, there are three main positive aspects of the new judgment from a digital rights perspective:.
While the GDPR regulates the ways in which personal data is processed in general, the ePrivacy Regulation specifically regulates the protection of privacy and confidentiality of electronic communications. The Regulation is currently facing heavy resistance from certain sectors of the publishing and behavioural advertising industry. One of the major obstacles in the negotiations is the question to what extent providers such as telecommunication companies can use metadata for other purposes than the original service.
Over-reliance on anything is not good, by definition, as is under-reliance, but such sophistry is a mainstay of lobby language. However, this lobby attack omits reference to the fact that compatible further processing would not lead only to benign applications in the public interest: Since the proposal does not limit further processing to statistical or research purposes, it could just as well be used for commercial purposes such as commercial or political manipulation.
But even with regard to the potentially more benevolent applications of AI, it should be kept in mind that automated data processing has in some cases shown to be highly detrimental to parts of society, especially vulnerable groups. This should not be ignored when evaluating the safety and privacy of aggregate data. It is easily imaginable that metadata, one of the most revealing and easiest to process forms of personal data , could be used for equally crude or misaligned applications, yielding highly negative outcomes for vulnerable groups.
Another pitfall of the supposedly private, ostensibly pseudonymised way of processing is that even if individual users are not targeted, companies may need to maintain the metadata of citizens in identifiable form to link existing data sets with new ones. This could essentially lead to a form of voluntary data retention , which might soon attract the interest of public security actors rapaciously seeking new data sources and new powers.
If such access was granted, individuals would essentially be identifiable. Although the Austrian Presidency of the Council of the European Union did include in their most recent draft compromise some noteworthy safeguards for compatible further processing, most notably the necessity to consult the national Supervisory Authority or to conduct a data protection impact assessment, the current proposal does not adequately empower individuals.
BEREC received criticisms for having prepared public consultations in haste, and many stakeholders called for better transparency. They also received praise for their handling of net neutrality and roaming to date. Industry voices were predictably split along known lines. Vertically integrated operators, entities that exercise commercial control over both the physical network and service provision to consumers through that physical network, continue to feel threatened by web services and vertically separated services, while challengers and new entrants continue to prioritise competition as the vehicle to drive investment.
Predictably, the recent advances of 5G cellular technologies bring the question of market access to the foreground of BEREC concerns. Some stakeholders present at the forum expressed strong enthusiasm for a European industrial policy view of 5G and called for roll-out and investment.
BEREC itself appears cognisant of the fact that they do not settle industrial policy for the EU but implement legislation decided by the legislators. While in fixed networks vertical separation is increasingly looking like to the road to more investment and better infrastructure, vertical integration is still present in mobile networks.
It will be imperative for BEREC to work not only on the aspects of effective competition that arise from economic reports and market surveys, but also to engage with the way in which technical designs shape the market. As operators attempt to innovate themselves out of competition, forces for public good should instead consider which innovation may enable better competition. The open standards and architecture of the internet itself is a testament to the ability of technical standards to enable competition, innovation, and access.
Places to start looking for a more competition-friendly technical architecture include the mechanisms for authenticating to the network. A network operator should not have a monopoly on granting access to competitors or consumers by technical design — having separable technical layers to the network ensures long-term sustainability.
Mechanisms for hand-over between network operators must also combine security and interoperability: For a software-defined network, it will be crucial to understand where the power to configure the characteristics of the network reside. We may ask what are the appropriate defaults in a network operators market that is dominated by a few actors. On 12 September , the European Parliament EP adopted the worst imaginable amendments to the copyright Directive proposal. After this disastrous vote, discussions moved behind closed doors, to the informal trilogues discussions , where the Council of the European Union EU Member States , representatives of the Parliament and the European Commission EC are trying to reach an agreement on the two positions of the text the Council proposal and the EP texts.
The Italian government has expressed its intention of moving away from the text previously agreed by the Council since the new government does not support some aspects of it, namely the upload filters. As there are several other Member States that were hardly enthusiastic about the proposal to start with, there seems to be the possibility that the Council ends up revising its own version. Given the concerns around Article 13, it is possible that Council will decide to review its position, and Member States need to discuss further their positions.
The text has faced strong criticism from academics, civil society, librarians, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression, and many others.
If the worst parts of the text are not amended, the EU could be rushing itself to adopt a text that is wrong in many levels.
We could end up with a closed, filtered and censored internet where the side effects of the measures are way worse than the alleged benefits it will bring for the music industry and collecting societies.
EU Parliament flip-flops backwards on copyright The report encourages good policy development based on thorough research and evidence. The European Commission or Member States should not propose binding policies until evidence and accurate benchmarks have been identified. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of online disinformation and propaganda on society, and develop measures according to the fact-based findings of that research.
The EU should move away from superficial solutions and propose practical, proportionate solutions to tackle the root causes of online disinformation and manipulation, such as the dominant data-hungry business models in the market,. The three organisations warn against some of the proposed solutions by the Commission. As a possible way forward, the report advocates for three more meaningful solutions: EDRi, Liberties and Access Now issue this report today following their common understanding on addressing disinformation in the digital age.
To read all our recommendations download the full report here. This is the number of uncorrected read errors the hard drive has reported. If this is not zero, back up your data. High This indicates the value of - the temperature in degrees Celsius.
This is the amplitude of thrashing or the distance of repetitive forward and reverse head motion. This is the total time that the head has been positioning. This is the number of errors in reading from the disk. The service may be Enabled, Disabled, Uploading or Paused. This field displays the name of a sharing website to which the NSA can automatically upload files. This field displays the username and related information of the account to use with the auto upload feature.
Click OK to continue the authorization process. Figure Flickr Authorization A confirmation page displays indicating successful authorization. Return to the NSA web configurator. Click Get Ready in the following screen to complete the authorization process. Chapter 11 Auto Upload Once the NSA is associated with your Flickr account, you can configure auto upload settings in the following screen. This is the path of a folder selected for auto upload.
The NSA only uploads files stored in the specified share or folder to your Flickr account. Use the Remove icon to remove a folder from the Folder Watch List. Check this option to prevent others from finding your files when they site area perform a search in the Flickr website. Select Restricted if the contents of your files are not suitable for certain people, such as children or your colleagues.
Select a content type for your files. This field displays the path of a folder selected for auto upload.
Use the Remove icon to delete a folder from the Folder Watch List. Reset Click this to restore your previously stored settings. Use this screen to configure the FTP Uploadr. Description This is the information related to the FTP server.
Chapter 11 Auto Upload Section Enter additional information about this FTP server. Click this to test your setttings and check whether you can use the settings to connect to the FTP server. Click this return to the previous screen without saving. The folder is available for auto upload. Internet connection has restricted upload speed. Click this to save your changes in this section. Click Clear to close the search function.
Select an account and click this to open a screen where you can edit the properties of the account. The green icon is for a user account. Select an account and click this to open a screen displaying the amount of storage space used by the account. Select User to give the account basic access rights to the NSA and allow the user to manage his own shares, change his own password, and access the contents of other shares to which he is given access rights.
This field lists the groups that the selected account belongs to. This only applies for files that the user saved onto the NSA while logged in with that username. This shows when you click the Group List tab. This displays the list of groups to which the selected user belongs. Click this to close the current screen.
Select a group and click this to open a screen where you can edit the properties of the selected group. Select a group and click this to open a screen where you can delete the group.
Click the drop-down menu to select a page number. Jump to a different page to display and access more groups.
Other reserved groups names that are not allowed are: Click this to configure recycle bins. Select a share and click this to edit the share. Select a share and click this to remove or restrict access to the share. Share Access drop-down list. Click Edit to open the following screen. Use this screen to configure share access rights for individual users and groups.
The specified days correspond to how long a file has been stored in a recycle bin. Size This field displays size of the file.
Click this to return to the Share Browser screen. Enter the number of minutes the NSA will sit idle before spinning the disk s hard disks down to sleep.
The default power-off time is 3 minutes. Apply Click this to save your changes in this section. Click Edit to go to the screen where you can configure the power control schedules. Refer to Apply Click this to save your changes in this section.
Actions Click the Delete icon to remove a power control schedule from the list. Add Power Use this part of the screen to configure power on, power off, and reboot Control times. Click this to add the power control schedule to the list. This displays a description of the log.
Click the top of the column to sort by alphabetical or reverse alphabetical order. Table on page for more information. Click this if the e-mail server you want the NSA to use for its e-mail Authentication alerts requires a username and password. User Enter the username for the e-mail server. Re-enter the password to confirm it. Click this to have the NSA send a test e-mail to the settings you have entered. In the table below, check the type of log alerts you want to receive in your e-mail.
Select All Log to include all types of log alerts. This replaces your current NSA configuration settings with the settings in the previously-saved configuration file. A pop-up screen appears asking you to confirm. Click OK to continue or Cancel to quit. Click this to reset the password for your MySQL database.
Click this to upload the new firmware. The NSA automatically restarts after you upgrade. Wait until the restart completes before accessing the NSA again. If you interrupt the upgrade, then the NSA may become unusable.
Click this to refresh the screen. Purge all files in recycle-bin folder in share: Remove recycle-bin folder in share: NSA is located The following sections describe these methods in more detail. See on page for more information on RAID. The Memeo Autobackup program uses the same network port as the discovery utility to discover the NSA.
To avoid a port conflict, turn off the discovery utility before using Memeo Autobackup. When you see the following screen, select Network Places and click the link to select your backup folder. Chapter 16 Protecting Your Data In this screen, select the items that you want to back up.
Figure Backup Items This screen lists the items you selected for backup. Confirm your selections and click Next. Installing or replacing a hard drive. In the process, the NSA deletes all existing data in the hard disk. I want to connect my external SATA hard disk and access the data inside it. If you want to initialize an internal SATA hard disk that has been initialized by the NSA previously, you will need to reformat the hard disk using your computer.
Appendix B on page Click the Custom Level Under Script ActiveX controls marked safe for scripting, make sure that Enable is selected the default. Click OK to close the window. It is recommended that you do not create subfolder shares. Deleting an existing volume in the NSA deletes all data in that volume. One of the hard disks in a RAID 1 volume failed. I want to transfer my file s from my local computer or storage device to the NSA. This shows you the folders in the NSA.
Use drag-and-drop or copy-and-paste to transfer files over to your NSA. Make sure the share containing the music and video files is published and the iTunes server option is enabled. If you uploaded many files, it may take awhile for the NSA to find and list all of them. Then try reconnecting your iTunes client. I cannot use iTunes to play files located on my NSA. I cannot find the download files. By default, the Download Service and Broadcatching features store downloaded files as follows: Make sure the file still exists in the watch folder.
Try again at a later time. Upgrade the firmware of the NSA. The eMule Search screen does not work. Copy or sync files directly from the NSA to compatible USB devices like card readers, MP3 players, mass storage devices, and digital cameras without using a computer.
Use RAID 1 if you have two drives and want to mirror primary data to the second drive. If one drive fails, replace it and then re-synchronize to recover all data. Configure a password for an individual User to restrict access to the NSA. After 8, folders have been created, new folder contents will not be added to the media server's list. However you can still access the folders using Samba.
One port in the back panel. Country names official short names in English in alphabetical order as given in ISO and the corresponding ISO alpha-2 code elements. Two-letter and three-letter language code sets. See the IANA web site ftp: Picture Transfer Protocol PTP from the International imaging Industry Association allows you to transfer pictures from digital cameras or other devices without needing additional device drivers.
In the Network window, click Add. Select Adapter and then click Add. Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK. Select Protocol and then click Add. Click Start and then Run.
Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet mask and default gateway. Figure Windows XP: Automatic metric check box and type a metric in Metric. You can also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and then click the Support tab. Figure Macintosh OS X: Click the Red Hat button located on the bottom left corner , select System Setting and click Network.
Figure Red Hat 9. Enter the DNS server information in the fields provided. The following figure shows an example. Restart Ethernet Card [root localhost init. Shutting down loopback interface: Bringing up loopback interface: Bringing up interface eth0: Figure Pop-up Blocker You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in the Privacy tab. Click Apply to save this setting.
It is also used as a listening port by ICQ. ICMP echo requests to test whether or not a remote host is reachable. This is the control channel. In this appendix, you can import a public key certificate for: Figure Internet Explorer 7: Certification Error Click Continue to this website not recommended.
Certificate Import Wizard If you want Internet Explorer to Automatically select certificate store based on the type of certificate, click Next again and then go to step 9.
Open File - Security Warning Refer to steps in the Internet Explorer procedure beginning on complete the installation process. Certificates In the Certificates confirmation, click Yes. Appendix D Importing Certificates The next time you go to the web site that issued the public key certificate you just removed, a certification error appears.
Select Accept this certificate permanently and click OK. Figure Firefox 2: The certificate is stored and you can now connect securely to the Web Configurator. This section shows you how to remove a public key certificate in Firefox 2. Delete Web Site Certificates The next time you go to the web site that issued the public key certificate you just removed, a certification error appears. Click Install to accept the certificate. Figure Opera 9: Rather than browsing to a ZyXEL Web Configurator and installing a public key certificate when prompted, you can install a stand-alone certificate file if one has been issued to you.
Certificate manager Use the Import certificate dialog box to locate the certificate and then click Open. This section shows you how to remove a public key certificate in Opera 9. The next time you go to the web site that issued the public key certificate you just removed, a certification error appears. There is no confirmation when you delete a certificate authority, so be absolutely certain that you want to go through with it before clicking the button.
Figure Konqueror 3. Server Authentication Click Forever when prompted to accept the certificate. Configure The next time you go to the web site that issued the public key certificate you just removed, a certification error appears.
Appendix D Importing Certificates Note: There is no confirmation when you remove a certificate authority, so be absolutely certain you want to go through with it before clicking the button. Derivative Works of, publicly display, publicly perform, sublicense, and distribute the Work and such Derivative Works in Source or Object form. Grant of Patent License. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: Portions of this software are based upon public domain software originally written at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
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For written permission, please contact group php. The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. Original Code or any previous Modifications. When Covered Code is released as a series of files, a Modification is: Any addition to or deletion from the contents of a file containing Original Code or previous Modifications.
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God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions. Note Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. Registration Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information at www. Page of Go. Step 1 Page Page - Backup: Step 2 Page Page Page - Backup: Step 3 Page - Backup: Step 1 Page Page - Edit Job: Step 2 Page - Restore Archive: Step 2 Page - Restore: Step 3 Page - Restore: Table of Contents Add to my manuals Add.
Troubleshooting Troubleshooting and Specifications About This User's Guide The embedded Web Help contains descriptions of individual screens and supplementary information. Page 7 Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Table Of Contents Shares Table Of Contents 3.
Page 17 Protecting Your Data Page 24 Refer to the Quick Start Guide for hardware connections and how to install and remove hard drives from the disk trays. Firmware Before you can start using your NSA, you have to install the firmware on the hard disk. Leds The NSA has failed. Page 28 You could then restore your configuration in the event that you or someone else reset the NSA to the factory defaults.
Device List Screen 2. Page 32 Click this to open a web help page about the screens. Page 33 Click this to log into the web configurator. The Firmware Path Screen Note: Page 37 NSA reboots. Login You should see a screen asking you to change your password highly recommended as shown next.
My Nsa Screens You can map a share to a network drive for easy and familiar file transfer for Windows users. Page 45 The following table describes the labels in this screen. Administration Screens Select the web configurator language from the drop-down list box.
Navigation Panel The following screen shows the features listed in the navigation panel. Page 54 View, create and edit groups. Main Window Click this to delete an entry from the list. Page 62 The NSA starts creating the volume and you can see the following progress bar. Deleting A Volume Share Browser screen. File Sharing Tutorials so you have a working volume.
Creating A Group This is how he would create the group. Page 75 Enter your password and click Login. Download Service Tutorial See if that link opens the file or the pop-up window. Page 78 Copy Link Location in Firefox. Page 79 The download appears in the Completed tab when it is done. Page 81 Open Internet Explorer and locate a download link. Page 83 The following screen displays. Configuring The Download Service Preferences If the file is intact but not completely downloaded, the NSA will resume the download task after it restarts.
Page 90 After you activate download service notification, click the RSS feed icon. Page 91 After you activate download service notification, click the RSS feed icon.
Page 92 Chapter 4 Tutorials The following screen displays. Page 95 Items for Download so you will be able to select individual items to download later. Ftp Uploadr Tutorial 4.
Page Add button and select video from the Shares drop-down list box, enter a forward slash in the Path field and click Apply to add the share to the Folder Watch List. Page Install the certificate. Page Chapter 4 Tutorials Before you add an exception, verify that the device to which you are trying to connect is providing the correct certificate.
Finder Chapter 4 Tutorials 4. How To Use Backupplanner For example, you might do daily backups of important individual files or folders and a weekly general archive. Page Have the NSA keep 3 backups. Page You do not need to use a special restore process to use the files a synchronization backup creates. Page Select the share where you have stored your the backup you want to restore and click Next. Page Chapter 4 Tutorials Select the backup job and backup time and click Next.
Page Browse to the folder where you want to put the files. Page Click the Refresh icon to update this display.
The Server Name Screen Select this option if computers in your workgroup are named with non-English characters such as Chinese and Russian. Creating A Sata Volume This field displays icons allowing you to edit, scan, repair or delete a volume. Page Use this screen to create a new NSA internal disk drive volume.
Page Linux file systems include: Network Jumbo Frames Jumbo frames are Ethernet frames larger than bytes. Page Enter the password associated with the username above. Page Connection Limit field. Page Click this to save your changes. The Media Server Screen Select shares in the Unpublished Shares box and click this to share the shares with media clients.
Page Select an item on the list and click this to display information about the download task. Page This is the percentage of the file that the NSA has downloaded. Page This appears in the Error tab. Adding A Download Task A torrent file uses a. Page Select a folder. Page Click this to restore your previously saved settings. The Web Publishing Screen This information is used to verify the torrent file. The Broadcatching Screen BitTorrent download task accordingly.
Adding A Broadcatching Channel This is the publishers introduction for the file. Page Download Only New Items: Page Path field. Print Server Rename Type a new name to identify the printer. Technical Reference NSA without having to copy them to another computer. Download Service The link capture browser plugin is an add-on feature for your web browser.
Bittorrent Security Place a hardware-based firewall between your network and the Internet a software-based firewall on your computer would just protect the computer itself, not the NSA since your computer is not between your NSA and the Internet.
Web Publishing Example This example covers how to configure the Web Publishing screen to let people use a web browser to access a share named FamilyPhotos without logging into the My NSA screens and shows how to access the share through the Internet. Page This is only available if you have previously installed the package. Displaying The Package Information Source This shows the location of the installed files of the application.
Emule Screens Check this and click Apply to enable the eMule application. Add Server You see a warning screen before you delete a server. Emule Task Screen s. Add Task This shows the number of requests for a shared file. Page Move completed downloads to. Page Enter the TCP port number you want to use for file transfers. Edit Ip Filter Apply Click this to save your changes. Share Browsing Click this to add files to the share.
Page This shows the download speed for the task. Emule Search Screen Enter the file extensions separated by commas of files you want included in the search results.
Dydns Screen This shows the name of the file s that match the criteria you have set. Page Section Smart Screen Name This shows the name assigned to the hard disk. Smart Brief Summary This shows the factory model of the hard disk.
Page This indicates when the hard drive updates the value for this attribute. Protect Screens Use this screen to create and customize scheduled backup jobs for your files. Page and whether or not it succeeded , and when it is scheduled to run again. Page Publish- The NSA does a backup of individual files to the target folder without overwriting existing files in that folder. Page A list of your select folders and files displays below the selection fields. Page Select the folder where you want to place the backup.
Edit Job Screen This is only available if you selected Monthly as your backup frequency. Page Keep Backups for n day s Step 2 Enter the interval between days when the NSA performs the backup job. Restore Archive Screen Click this to close the screen. Step 2 Select the folder where the backup you want to restore is located.
Step 2 Type - This identifies the item as a file or folder. Step 3 Click this to go to the next screen. Step 4 Select the folder where the backup you want to restore is located. Technical Reference The following table describes some common S. Page This is the number of times the hard drive has gone through a full power on and power off.
Page This is the amplitude of thrashing or the distance of repetitive forward and reverse head motion. Page This is the path of a folder selected for auto upload. Page Check this option to prevent others from finding your files when they site area perform a search in the Flickr website. Configuring The Youtube Settings Select Restricted if the contents of your files are not suitable for certain people, such as children or your colleagues.
Page This field displays the path of a folder selected for auto upload. Page Internet connection has restricted upload speed. The Users Screen Click Clear to close the search function. Adding Or Editing An Account Select User to give the account basic access rights to the NSA and allow the user to manage his own shares, change his own password, and access the contents of other shares to which he is given access rights.
Page Select a group and click this to open a screen where you can edit the properties of the selected group. The Shares Screen Click this to configure recycle bins. The Share Browser Screen Click this to add files to the share. Page Size This field displays size of the file. Page Click Edit to go to the screen where you can configure the power control schedules.
Page Enter the interval between days when the NSA performs the backup job. The Log Screen This displays a description of the log. Report Config Screen Click this if the e-mail server you want the NSA to use for its e-mail Authentication alerts requires a username and password.
Report Setting Re-enter the password to confirm it. Syslog Server Setting In the table below, check the type of log alerts you want to receive in your e-mail. The Firmware Upgrade Screen Click this to upload the new firmware. Configuration File Backup And Restoration Page When you see the following screen, select Network Places and click the link to select your backup folder. Page In the process, the NSA deletes all existing data in the hard disk.
Reset The Nsa Page Click the Custom Level Page delete, move, rename, and so on. Media Server Functions Page If you uploaded many files, it may take awhile for the NSA to find and list all of them. Specification Tables After 8, folders have been created, new folder contents will not be added to the media server's list. Page In the Network window, click Add.
Page Click Start and then Run. Page Figure Windows XP:
In an interview, the NSA-whistleblower spoke publicly about his life in Russia, Angela Merkel and the need for better whistleblower-protection. ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the US with the aid of four other signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, also known as the Five Eyes.. The ECHELON program was created . In Edward Snowden's archive on NSA spying activities around the world, there are numerous documents pertaining to the agency's operations in Germany and its cooperation with German agencies.