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Professor Mukhtar Ali Naqvi: How did Mohammed send letters to the Bynzantine Kings if he couldn't read or write? You are just like the Muslims that said Jesus used the word Muslim when he died on the cross, which Muslims say he didn't do!! Someone call the logic police!! Those letters are bogus propoganda. They say that Mohammed wrote the letters when it was a well-known fact he was illiterate. In fact, that is supposed to give credibility to his prophecy although I don't know how. And nobody around him was literate either, otherwise the Koran would have been codified in his time instead of oral traditions.

Not that I believe it anyway; Uthman's compilation that is the ancestoral text of all Korans today was just one of the many oral traditions that existed. Who knows, the others might have been completely different and we have no way to tell when those were codified. We only have bits and pieces of others which tell us nothing besides that there were some stories written in Arabic sometime after "Mohammed" and that they later ended up in a book that was titled the Koran and said to be a prophecy.

I don't know of any book of Puin on the Sanaa Korans till now. He surely would have told me about such a book. I know however that Luxenberg is publishing an English version of his book this autumn, prior to the Frankfurt book fair. I've studied reviews on Luxxenberg's book. This is no research. It is a biased approach of trying to prove that the Quran is not in pure Arabic; whereas the fact is, it is.

His so called evidence doesn't fit into the context of the verses. He dosn't seem to have studied the Quran in depth. For example, hoorun een means wide black eyed fair maidens,but he says white grapes. Where is the word in the Quran in this context for grapes. Arabic word is a'naab which is not used here. Then 'een means wide black eyes; but he does't translate it here.

The thinking of the author is not rational and logical. This is pure misguidance and imaginatively jumping at conclusions. The Quran says that one should not engage in speculation for finding the truth, but demand evidence. To those people who cannot fathom the fact that Muhammad was illiterate, while it was mentioned he wrote letters to the kings of his time Wake up from the depths of your ignorance and racial hatred.

It does not take a rocket scientist to envisage how he composed letters to the kings of his time. Ever heard of the words dictate? There is so much to clarify from above - if you really and utterly believe that the Qur'an is not the word of God, then please email me with your concerns. My comments are simple. I used to be a muslim, but not anymore.

The Koran and Hadith advocate some very harsh teechings and unless you can prove beyond doubt the neccesity for the hypothesis that the "Koran is divine", we need not take it seriously. For too long i and other people have suffered social rejection for not accepting the Koran as the word of God. What's the need for all this religious pride? We are all humans! There is no need for any social rejection if former muslims do not wish to believe in Islam anymore!

Can the Koran guarentee us salvation? Why are their soo many harsh teechings and contradictions? Havent any muslims noticed the latest findings upon the text of the Koran?

A lot of mulsims make some bold claims about their religion and book the Koran , and it seems to me that these standards are too high indeed. After all, the sole reasons why mulsims ask us to take the Koran as divine, is because it is the perfect, unchanging miraculous text of God. That even is being disputed, so what does Islam have to offer spiritual minded people apart from returning to the belief in pure monotheism?

By the way, i just would like to say that i wish to tell muslims about my faith and why i chose it. I think Mulsims would find it interesting and would love share myself with spritualy minded people. It was constructed to be understood that way. He has failed utterly to understand its nature i. It was not a literary work. But when we read English now we understand them as they are used in English now and not how they were used in the past in the other languages.

It is present context that counts. That is, it uses familiar worldly experiences to describe unfamiliar spiritual experiences. This is what we were provided with before, and they shall be provided with their similitude; and there are pure companions for them therein, and they shall dwell therein for ever.

Allah does not disdain to set forth a similitude even of a gnat, or anything lower or higher; and as for those who believe, they know that it is truth from the Lord; but as for those who disbelieve, they say, "What is it that Allah means by this as a parable? He leads astray many and He guides many;"- but He leads astray only the evildoers; "Those who break Allah's covenant after the fixing thereof, and cut asunder what Allah has ordered to be joined, and do evil in the earth, these it is who are losers.

This has been translated as "virgin" because that word has a similar significance. The Quran does not mention 72 virgins. Obviously, in Paradise things are not like on earth. But the phrase "white raisin" makes no sense in the verses containing "houri". Try making the substitution.

It cannot be denied that some Muslims, usually uneducated ones, have a naive, material and literal understanding and that others use this to make them do whatever political or commercial agenda they have.

But this kind of cultivation and exploitation of superstitions has taken place in all religions and is not confined to religion. This does not, however, imply that it was originally meant to have that meaning, use or effect. Literal meanings have been taken.

Some of the verses in the Quran that mention Houri are the following: A reward for what they used to do. They shall not hear therein vain or sinful discourse, except the saying: The eyes are a window to the soul and the description implies innocence, truth and friendliness that is permanent. The verses refer to congenial companionship, free from frivolity and conflicts and full of inner peace and fulfilment. And when you look, you will see blessings and a magnificent kingdom.

Upon them will be garments of fine green silk and gold brocade, and they shall be adorned with bracelets of silver, and their Lord will give them a drink pure and holy. Compare, for instance, the verses dealing with houris with verses such as the following: Return unto your Lord, well pleased and well pleasing unto Him! He indeed is successful who causes it to grow or purifies it!

And he indeed is a failure who corrupts it! Guide us in the Straight Path, the path of those whom Thou hast favoured; not of those who earn Thy wrath; nor of those who go astray. Sorry, Luxenberg and his like cannot be taken seriously by Muslims. But no doubt people who do not understand or are hostile to religion or Islam will accept whatever confirms their prejudices.

Such beliefs cannot, however, be attributed to Islam. There is no validity in the claim that the word means "white raisin". It makes no sense. Oh, so the number 72 doesn't occur? In astro-archaeological terms, it stands for the length of a human life 'three score years and ten'- rounded up because that's the time the sun takes in years to travel one degree from its point of rising due to the phenomenon of precession.

Based on that, I would have said that the symbolic interpretation was that the martyr - which means 'witness' in New Testament Greek, so god knows what's intended by the word in Arabic - gets a new life of 72 unsullied years. What we call scripture is poetry about God and humankind's relation to It.

Priests and lawyers and politicians and even linguists and historians can't get to the heart of these things. Only poets who love can do that.

I've tried reading the Qu'ran in a couple of translations, but it's a puzzle and a disappointment in English. And Mohammed is portrayed as someone who forces religion on people by the use of the sword. Now, in the Bhagavad Gits, for example, the battle the hero is enjoined to fight is against his relatives, but it is pretty clear that the meaning is that he must free himself from the cultural and psychological baggage passed to him by his relatives as part of his process of innner liberation, not literally kill them.

Menawhile in some of the books of the old Testament the great metaphor of exile that runs through them is used as justification by jewish settlers to take people's homes away, because they believe the land to have been promised to them by God.

The 'home' of course, is a spiritual, inner place, existing in elevated consciousness, from which they and we are exiled because of our incarnation into matter and our consequent forgetfulness of our true origin and nature, except for our yearning. Certain great individuals pop up in different times and places who remember where they and we come from - and have the power to lead us 'home.

Literal minded 'fundamentalism' is the curse of our age, a symptom of our dullness and lack of imagination. Mythology - by which i don't mean lies, but a way of describing what cannot even be approached in logical terms - cuts across religious, cultural and national borders and can render a text comprehensible to one who does not know the original language, because myths recur, and their imagery is so strong that that one can get by without translation.

I believe that you cannot understand scripture without reading several of them, from different religions,and making a study of ancient literature in general. The Odyssey was like scripture to the classical Greeks. I've always found the Qu'ran puzzling because i can't get past the opening bit where Mohammed goes to war to propagate religion, and in the translations i've read it is written in a very literal way, very hard to read as a holy war within the self against one's own dark thoughts and impulses.

Or of early priests or imams, the mediating caste that bedevils the legacies of all the great teachers and tries to control what the rest of us think or believe? Did they make sure the best bits were missed out? As for the position of women in islam, i have always understood that the Greeks introduced the veiling of women to the middle East.

The great Teachers have always treated women as equal to men, and sought to mitigate the worst sexism in the cultures in which they found themselves.

People who consider themselves Christian, or Muslim, or whatever, can be terrible advertisements for the life and works of Jesus or Mohammed or whomever. The real blasphemers are those who insist upon promoting a concept of God and Teacher based on their miserable narrow minded life hating agendas. So many insults are offered on a daily basis to the memories of individuals so much more loving and conscious than their so-called followers can ever hope to imagine.

It doesn't matter who you claim to worship; the real worship is in the heart, for God is love, love is God, and every act of kindness is an act of worship.

For what it's worth, the grape thing sounds like rubbish to me in terms of poetic symbolism, which is my area of expertise. Being an archaeologist, historian, and linguist, speaking and writing German, English, French, Italian, Greek, modern Hebrew, Arabic, and Turkish, having studied classical Greek, Aramaic Talmudic , biblical Hebrew, Ugaritic, and above all Assyriology, I can only confirm that Luxenberg's work is sound and according to academic standards.

There is, however, some scholarly criticism possible on purely linguistic basis. The ignorance of most abobe contributions is simply shocking. Now I've read some of his views about the Quran.

They are wrong and based on misunderstanding. The seven redaings are based on false and misunderstood Hadith. Luxenberg has provided no evidence for the meanings in context and in continuity.

I have not yet read "Christoph Luxenber"'s book yet. So I am not in a position to comment. It has however brought up a very relevant theme. Are all the Muslim scholars, including puritan fanatics like Osmana Bin Laden unable to understand one simple thing: I simply cannot understand this puerile, naive approach to the idea of God, whether seen as Jahweh, the Triune God or the One God known as Allah.

Can any serious Muslim, no matter whether he be bearded or clean-shaven - but certainly after clearing his conscience - please enlighten me? I might be wrong after all, but I definitely think that this virgin thing smacks of a backward, primitive religion and not the sophisticated, elegant, supernatural word of God.

And may I add, that when I use the term "God" or "Allah" I prostrate myself in all humility before Him and ask for His forgiveness if I may sound presumptuos by appearing to know so much about Him and His will. On Luxenberg's thesis let there be scholarly and objective discourse. Unfortunately, this cannot be expected from a muslim who swears by Allah, Quran and the prophet, for whom 'Truth' is what Allah has said.

If Allah mean that the earth is flat it should be flat, even if the spherical earth has become a matter of common knowlege. Principal of Natural Justice is not be sought in Allah's dictionary. Every individual on this planet is entitled to a decent life with dignity and self respect. Let me applaud the comments of Dr Zohar above. Having waded through the depressing catalogue of ignorant and malicious slanders forming the majority of the contributions to this page, is there any responsible reaction but despair for the future of humanity?

It should be clear to all but the most simple-minded that there are some questions which rigorous analysis can answer better than the reflexes of prejudice and the delusions of fanatics. It reminds me of the 'debate' in North America over what to do about bones found in tribal burial grounds which evidently predate the arrival of the tribes in question by thousands of years. The answer of the judiciary? To accept the holiness of these traditional relics.

Is there anything more than this infantile fear of the truth at work here? If so I fail to see it. Christoph Luxenberg is not a 'Western' scholar. He is a Lebanese Christian. Want to see a real scholarly article on Luxenberg? I read koran and its translation from time to time, I think it does not take a genious to realise how poor it was written, most the verses written are not in logical order I remember once I had to take a tablet of panadol just to get rid of the effect after reading it for 60 minutes straight , it really is not like the bible, someone can actually follow, for example, one story like Abraham, where he came from, what he did, who his friends and family members were, then continued on with the story of his son's life and so on.

Reading the bible is like reading a history book, so easy to understand and follow. Felice, Felicia from the Latin felicitas, Meaning "Happiness. Feline from the Latin, Meaning "A Cat. Florentia from the Latin meaning "Blooming. Hilary, Hillary from the Latin hilarius, Meaning "Cheerful. Jovita from the Latin, Meaning "Jovial. Lana from the Latin lanatus, Meaning "Wooly. Laraine from the Latin, Meaning "Sea-bird.

Lucania from the Latin lucius, Meaning "A Fish. Madrona Magna from the Latin, Meaning "Great. Mare, Maren from the Latin, Meaning "Sea. Akin to Athena in Greek Mythology. Oriente Tegla Dunskis, Vandergrift, Pennsylvania. Paloma Picasso, Costume Designer.

Paula from the Latin paulus, Meaning "Small. Peale from the Latin pax, Meaning "Peace. Pia from the Latin, Meaning "Pious. Raina from the Latin regnum, Meaning "To Rule. Raina, Rani, Rayna, Regan, Reina. Ruby from the Latin rubeus, Meaning "Red, Reddish.

Rula from the Latin regula, Meaning " Ruler. From the Latin satus, Meaning "Sowed, Planted. Serena from the Latin serenus, Meaning "Peaceful. Unity from the Latin unus, Meaning "One. Verita from the Latin veritas, Meaning "Truth. Vera, Verus, Verena, Verina, Verity. Viceni from the Latin, Meaning "Twenty. Zelia from the Latin zelus, Meaning "Zealous. Ruler of Earth Asa Represents Truth. Azura from the Persian, Meaning "Sky-blue. Laila, Laili, Lailie, Laleh, Laylie.

Lila, Lilah, Lilas, Lilias. Yasmeen a Persian Flower Name. Flame of the Forest Anshula: Woman with Beautiful Hair Kokila: Creeper with Beautiful Flowers Malika: Precious Blue Stone Naseen: Light of the World Nusrat: Rita from the Sanskrit, Meaning "Brave" or "Honest. Woman of Bewitching Beauty Akasma: The intending purchaser having ascertained there is no defect in the faculties of speech, hearing, etc. From such scenes one turns away with pity and indignation.

The history of the slave trade has given rise to numerous debates amongst historians. For one thing, specialists are undecided on the number of Africans taken from their homes; this is difficult to resolve because of a lack of reliable statistics: Archival material for the transatlantic trade in the 16th to 18th centuries may seem useful as a source, yet these record books were often falsified.

Historians have to use imprecise narrative documents to make estimates which must be treated with caution: Luiz Felipe de Alencastro states that there were 8 million slaves taken from Africa between the 8th and 19th centuries along the Oriental and the Trans-Saharan routes. There has also been a considerable genetic impact on Arabs throughout the Arab world from pre-modern African and European slaves. These are given in chronological order. Scholars and geographers from the Arab world had been travelling to Africa since the time of Muhammad in the 7th century.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. By country or region. History of slavery in the Muslim world and Barbary slave trade. History of slavery in the Muslim world , Muslim conquests , and Islamic views on slavery. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Trans-Saharan trade route and Swahili coast. Africa portal Arab world portal Islam portal. Eastern Kenya and Its Invaders. East African Literature Bureau.

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The Arab slave trade was the intersection of slavery and trade in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe. This barter occurred chiefly between the medieval era and the early 20th century. The trade was conducted through slave markets in these areas, with the slaves captured mostly from Africa's interior and Southern Europe. Legendary Eritrean musician Tsehaytu Beraki has died in exile in the Netherlands at the age of Regarded as the mother of Eritrean soul, Tsehaytu was a trailblazer for female musicians in the. Established in , the Saudi-based Arab News is the Middle East’s newspaper of record and the biggest English language daily in the Kingdom.