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The warrants do not say how Killgore met the suspects. Sloan Ostbye, Lopez's attorney, didn't immediately respond to a phone message Wednesday. She joined the San Diego County district attorney's office in an appeal to keep the documents sealed, calling much of her client's letter "false or at least misleading and possibly delusional.

In her letter, Lopez called Perez the "Master" and told police he wasn't responsible for the killing. Detectives found the letter in a San Diego hotel where Lopez was discovered with self-inflicted cuts four days after Killgore disappeared. The letter indicates where the body was dumped, telling police they would likely find handcuff marks on the wrists. It says the handcuffs and a knife were disposed of at a beach restroom in Oceanside.

Three days after Killgore vanished, detectives searched Perez's mud-caked Ford Explorer and found a plastic bag with a stun gun, latex gloves and Killgore's blood. Perez's DNA was found on the stun gun. The documents describe an elaborate ruse for Perez to conceal his whereabouts on the night Killgore vanished. The Marine told detectives he picked up Killgore for the dinner cruise but instead dropped her off at a downtown San Diego nightclub.

He said he couldn't find her at the club after parking and returned home. Killgore's and Perez's cell phones remained in Fallbrook that night, contradicting his statement that he was in San Diego, according to authorities.

Killgore sent a text message to a friend that said, "Help," at 7: The friend asked if she was OK and insisted she call. A transient found Killgore's phone at his feet when he woke up in the doorway of a downtown San Diego hotel that night. A San Diego County sheriff's detective said he believed Perez drove downtown to get rid of the phone.

A preliminary hearing is scheduled for Aug. Complete coverage of Brittany Killgore on Crimesider. Body was identified as year-old Brittany Kilgore, who was reported missing on April We had two conventions at Stirling North. The first attracted about seventy delegates. This year we had over two thousand people at some meetings. We met in the hall there, but, when more people came, we shifted into the Port Augusta Town Hall. Looking back, and putting the AEF into a world perspective, we learned that the Canadian Indian Evangelical Fellowship commenced their organisation in , and also in that year, there was a revival in the Solomon Islands.

Other fellowships all over the world were springing up, while we thought that we were the only ones. In the second year we had Maori people. Miller, the Principal of the Auckland Bible College, told us about it and we invited them. About five hundred people came to it. That occasion was when they saw their first snake because apparently there are no snakes in New Zealand.

The Maori people went wild and chased it until they got it, just to see their first snake in Australia. Three Pitjantjatjara men came to the second convention, and the numbers increased rapidly up to It was an education to the urban people just to meet tribal people. Sometimes these were the first tribal people they had met.

There are few tribal people in Port Augusta and other areas they can talk to. Also they taught us about faith and simplicity in their approach to the Gospel. They were not tied up with a lot of material things, nor the necessity for logical reasoning in everything. They just accepted the simple accounts and stories, so their faith was more straightforward.

They gave more Aboriginality to the meetings with their tribal ways, language and singing. Also I would like to see the day when Aborigines form Aboriginal fellowships in the Aboriginal evangelical churches of Australia, along lines similar to what the Uniting churches are trying to do. They should be handing over to Aborigines to encourage their strength and unity and fellowship, as the political climate may change and we might be expecting persecution and hard times in the future.

Aboriginal churches should come together and strengthen each other. We did not get any help from the government as we were a religious body. However, the army helped us by lending us tents, crockery and other equipment.

People paid their own fares, and for their meals. The value of the convention was that people came into a deeper experience of God and went back to their own places contributing to their churches and fellowships. Others were being inspired to start churches of their own and became an asset to their community churches. People were being educated as Christians in organising things in the convention, contributing choir items, reaching and attending council meetings.

Doing this ourselves has been an educational exercise. There is need for a balanced experience. When I asked Pastor Braeside how he had acquired such a distinguished name he said that after he had been stolen he was taken to a property called Braeside and that he and all the other boys were given the surname Braeside.

His non-Aboriginal name was Jack Braeside. All those men made a big impression on me At present he is working in Mildura. Missionary, Methodist minister, ethnographer, naturalist, diarist, correspondent, writer, autobiographer, memoirist Marriage: Thomas Buddle, missionary in New Zealand. He received his rudimentary education at a private school. Reacting to his stepmother's discipline, he proved wayward, dealt in contraband when an apprentice and attempted to run away to sea.

After experience on a troopship and in Canada, he migrated to New Zealand in March , attending classes held by Bishop Selwyn and Rev. Patteson on the voyage. While living with Buddle at Onehunga, Brown was influenced by leading Methodist preachers, joined the 'society', became a local preacher and was designated a missionary for Samoa in James Wallis, missionary at Whaingaroa Harbour; of their nine children, two sons and four daughters survived infancy.

Brown was ordained in Sydney on 19 September and soon afterward sailed to the islands. In October Brown arrived in Sydney and continued his deputationary work in the colonies. An entire house was built in Sydney to be transported to New Britain and the Browns settled there at the end of the missionary voyage in When a Fijian missionary and three teachers were murdered in April Brown acquiesced in a punitive expedition which caused a furore in the Australasian press the Blanche Bay affair and had repercussions at Exeter Hall, but which rendered the region safe for all expatriates.

Seriously ill, Brown withdrew to Sydney in May In September he went to Fiji where he was virtually exonerated. Because of travel hazards he did not reach New Britain until March His wife had survived a serious illness but two of his children had died. When the Browns left the archipelago in January about twenty-nine stations had been established. Sydney now became Brown's headquarters where he engaged in linguistic work for the mission.

He had accrued additional celebrity through descriptions of his collections in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London in , and was popular for deputationary work. In he did much to influence Australian public opinion about the islands by his letters to the Sydney Morning Herald under various pseudonyms, the most notable series being the Carpe Diem letters in which criticized British inaction and warned of German aggression.

Appointed to the Bourke Street circuit, he was superintendent in In he visited England where he was lionized in church and scientific circles and acted as a commissioner for New South Wales at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition in London. He returned to Sydney via America in March In the interim he had been appointed general secretary of missions, an office which he held until his retirement in April His first major assignment was to act in as special commissioner to Tonga, where colonial mission policies had provoked the secession of the 'Free Church' in under the King and Rev.

By his capable handling of the situation Brown helped to avoid dissension in the Australian colonies where active Tongan committees had been formed. While secretary, he was also responsible for pioneering two new mission fields within the Australian sphere of influence. He attended the meeting at Port Moresby on 17 June under the auspices of Sir William MacGregor when the major Protestant missions came to a mutual understanding on Papua, and in launched the Methodist mission at Dobu. After visiting the Solomon Islands in , he conducted the first mission party to Roviana in May He also made many visits to Methodist missions in the western Pacific.

In Brown was awarded an honorary D. He wrote many mission pamphlets and reports and was a regular contributor to the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science.

His papers included 'Conceptional theory of the origin of Totemism' and 'The necessity for a uniform system of spelling Australian proper names', and in he was responsible for an influential report on the 'Future of the Australian Aborigines'.

His Carpe Diem letters were resumed briefly in He visited London in where he published George Brown, D. An Autobiography, much of the work being done by his daughters Elizabeth and Monica. Their Life-Histories Described and Compared followed in Tylor, Sir James Frazer, J. He was a corresponding member of various societies and a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. In , when president of the Methodist General Conference, Brown went to England as special Australasian representative to the missionary centenary celebrations of British Methodism in October.

He was buried in the Methodist section of the Gore Hill cemetery. His wife died at Kinawanua on 7 August His extensive collection of South Sea artefacts was bought by the Bowes Museum at Barnard Castle, and over thirty volumes of his papers are in the Mitchell Library. MacGregor described him as 'the most pellucid man' he knew, and Thurston, who was not generally sympathetic to missionaries, liked him and described him as 'thoroughly trustworthy'.

Though at first he seemed 'lady-like' in manners and appearance to colonial Wesleyans, his essential toughness and resilience helped him to survive all manner of obstacles. Stevenson found in him, as in James Chalmers of New Guinea, a hero, and wanted to write his biography in Brunsdon Fletcher saw him as an imperialist, though 'a Radical to his finger-tips'. Although the opponents of missions said that he 'cared more about his name being given to a new snake, bird, or insect' than for the souls of the islanders, his missionary exertions gave him little time for the scientific pursuits he enjoyed, and he had a real sympathy for the indigenous peoples.

Deane ed , In Wild New Britain: Mr Bruce was in a solicitor's office in Warrnambool for some years, and in he volunteered for service with the China Inland Mission.

His family received a letter from him last week, in -which, while the possibility of an out-break appeared to be recognised there was nothing to cause special anxiety.

Mr Bruce was about 30 years of age, and unmarried. He trained for missionary work under the Rev W. Lockhart Morton at Belair, South Australia. Concerning the identity of the second victim mentioned in the cable, there is some doubt. Lewis, an American missionary, who went out in , and who has been of late a good deal associated with Mr Bruce.

On the other hand, the latest Chinese directories available include the name of the Rev S Lewis, a missionary stationed at Chungking, ia the province of Seechuan, a province which almost adjoins Hunan. David Carley, one of convicts transported on the Clyde, 11 March Convicted at Middlesex, Clerkenwell Sessions for a term of 10 years.

First missionary wife of James Chalmers. Chalmers said of his dear wife Jeanie, "She was a whole-hearted missionary. Prendergast James Chalmers , missionary, was born 4 August in the fishing village of Ardrishaig on Loch Fyne, Scotland, the only son of an Aberdonian stonemason.

When he was 7 the family moved to Inveraray where he attended the local school and then worked for some years in a solicitor's office. In his youth Chalmers was greatly impressed by an account of missionary work in Fiji but later reacted against the stern Calvinistic doctrines preached by Highland Presbyterians and drifted away from the church.

In he was converted in a religious revival and two years later joined the Glasgow City Mission as an evangelist. There he met George Turner, the Samoan missionary, at whose suggestion he applied to the London Missionary Society for acceptance as a missionary candidate in Chalmers had hoped to work in Africa but was appointed to the Pacific, arriving with his wife at Rarotonga in the Cook Islands on 20 May ; there they remained for ten years.

Although disappointed that his position lacked the challenge of pioneer mission work, Chalmers waged a vigorous campaign against drunkenness, reorganized the training of island evangelists and produced a monthly newspaper. Tamate, the name by which he preferred to be called, was the Rarotongan version of his surname. In his desire for pioneer work was realized when he was appointed to New Guinea, where three years earlier Rev.

William Lawes had established a mission with headquarters at Port Moresby. The co-operation of these two men laid the foundation of the London Missionary Society's work in the island.

Their policy was to set up a chain of mission stations along the southern coast, staffed by South Sea Island evangelists under the supervision of European missionaries. While establishing these stations Chalmers explored much of New Guinea's coastline, made several inland journeys and was the first European to contact many of the different groups of people who inhabited these areas. Although he was interested in exploration and was asked several times to lead expeditions into New Guinea he refused on the grounds that he was first and foremost a missionary.

In the ceremonies associated with the declaration of the British Protectorate in Chalmers acted as official interpreter in areas outside Port Moresby.

Sir Peter Scratchley was anxious to secure his services for the administration but Chalmers remained with the mission. During his missionary career he returned to Britain in and , receiving acclaim both as an explorer and as a missionary and arousing widespread interest in the island by his lectures. He published several accounts of his work: There were no children of either marriage. During his twenty-three years in New Guinea Chalmers resided for short periods on the east coast at Suau, Port Moresby, Motumotu and Saguane in the Fly River delta, but for long periods he had no permanent home.

His last station was Daru. From there he set out with a colleague, Oliver Tompkins, to establish a mission on Goaribari Island. Their deaths at the hands of hostile islanders on 8 April resulted in the last major punitive expedition in British New Guinea.

Three years later the acting administrator, Judge Christopher Robinson, set out with a party to recover the skulls of the two missionaries. Robinson's mishandling of the situation resulted in the death of a number of islanders and led to his suicide. An eccentric, humane man of great personal charm, Chalmers numbered among his friends personalities as diverse as Robert Louis Stevenson and 'Bully' Hayes; but his talent for friendship was most evident in his relations with the New Guinea people to whom he was sincerely and unsentimentally devoted.

His Autobiography and Letters Lond, W. Presbyterian, Open broad-church catholic Christian Occupation: Various jobs; contributed notes on bird life to the local press, then to newspapers in Melbourne; honorary nature teacher in Victorian high schools; reporter on the Maryborough and Dunolly Advertiser ; Brisbane Mail ? First recipient, Australian Natural History Medallion Olive May Haseler b. Awoke awareness of beauty in Nature; pioneer conservationist; Champion of the birds Works: Alec Chisolm ; works 2.

Alec attended Maryborough State School until the age of During his formative years, after work and farm chores, he educated himself, learned shorthand, wrote poetry, fossicked for gold, collected stamps and cigarette cards, and enjoyed amateur theatricals. An insatiable reading appetite and an astounding memory were to serve him well. In his autobiography, The Joy of the Earth Sydney, , Chisholm claimed that, from early childhood, he was aware of nature surrounding him.

Whenever he could, he escaped to the bush and in commenced a diary in which the entries were almost entirely devoted to birds. That year he became a member of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union and in published six articles in Emu.

A conservationist long before it became fashionable to be one, he attacked the plume trade in an article in the Maryborough and Dunolly Advertiser which won him many friends, among them Dame Mary Gilmore; in he accepted a job as a reporter on that newspaper. An invitation to join the Bird Observers' Club led to his lifelong association with natural history societies; once nature study was accepted as a school subject, he addressed children and coached teachers.

Four major moves and the irregular hours of journalism enabled Chisholm to lead a life of varied and ceaseless activity. He often turned his experiences into books. In he moved to Queensland as a reporter on the Brisbane Daily Mail.

There he contacted local birdwatchers, joined clubs, and became honorary advisor and lecturer on natural history to the Queensland government. In he promoted legislation protecting native fauna and made court appearances to prosecute offenders. Through journalism, he championed the causes of birds. His sustained efforts led to the rediscovery in of the Paradise Parrot Psephotus pulcherrimus , now possibly extinct.

When dignitaries went birdwatching, he was called upon to act as guide: In Chisholm transferred to Sydney's Daily Telegraph. While in Sydney he chaired the combined meetings of the ornithological section of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and the State branch of the R.

From 2UW radio on 3 July he participated in the first, live broadcast of a lyrebird's calls. An admirer of Donald Macdonald, he succeeded him as nature and sports writer. Appointed editor in , he resigned next year and spent eight months lecturing in Britain, the Netherlands and Germany.

Again using newspapers to achieve his aims, he sought material relating to John Gould. This highly successful plan, related in Strange New World Sydney, , led to the discovery of Gouldiana, historical documents pertaining to Australia and John Gilbert's diary. Back in Melbourne, Chisholm joined the Herald. He was press liaison officer to the governor-general, the Duke of Gloucester, for three months in and edited the edition of Who's Who in Australia.

In Chisholm resigned from the Herald and moved permanently to Sydney to undertake the single, largest assignment of his career—as editor-in-chief of the ten-volume Australian Encyclopaedia Sydney, This achievement earned him in the O. He also began an association with the Sydney Morning Herald that lasted until his death. As well as the hundreds of articles which he contributed to ornithological and natural history magazines, Chisholm published such monographs as: He was represented in several anthologies, and his innumerable articles appeared in a wide range of newspapers and journals, as well as in the Australian Dictionary of Biography.

His forewords, introductions, reviews and obituaries provide valuable background to Australian bird-lore, history and his own life. An excellent photographer at a time when it took herculean strength to manage the equipment, he illustrated his books and articles with his work. He received over twenty awards and honorary fellowships in Australia and overseas; he unveiled historic markers in three States, delivered memorial lectures and was patron of various events, notably the Maryborough Golden Wattle Festival.

The price of this hectic life was bouts of ill health, and operations for gall-stones and stomach ulcers. Chisholm was short and slight, with piercing, blue eyes and a mass of wavy hair. In later years he was a familiar figure in his hat and gabardine overcoat, carrying a suitcase and walking stick.

Imperious and querulous, he gained the respect—and incurred the wrath—of many people, but remained passionately faithful to the causes in which he believed. He died on 10 July in his flat at Cremorne Point and was cremated with Presbyterian forms. His daughter survived him. Kloot, 'Alexander Hugh Chisholm: Leader of the Y. Melbourne - Roy C. The Bible in focus: Report of visit to France - by R.

Girola writes that Confalonieri 'was educated at various Capuchin institutes in the Trentino. To fulfil his vocation as a missionary among the Aborigines he had trained not only spiritually, at the Propaganda Fide's Urban College, but also physically, in the mountains of his region, undergoing extreme tests of withstanding fasting, the cold and intense heat. He arrived in the remote settlement of Victoria at Port Essington in , only to die two years later.

It is likely that he he is a Martyr for he died of malaria as well as of exhaustion in his attempt to learn the custom and language of the Aborigines by following their harsh way of life for the sake of Christ. Huxley's "Diary of the Voyage of the H. Rattlesnake" tells of the ship's arrival at Port Essington on November 5th, He writes; "Several miles nearer the mouth of the harbour below the red cliff than Victoria and on the opposite bank of the estuary, we passed in coming up a little low solitary house that we rightly judged to be the residence of Don Angelo, the Catholic Missionary.

Don Angela lived wholly by himself. He got the natives to build his house for him and he lived wholly in their manner - rather priding himself upon so doing, though there can be little doubt that he thereby hastened his end. The contributions collected in this volume, prepared by scholars from diverse disciplinary, revealed both whether an event of extraordinary cultural, religious and human wealth is the personality of a missionary in the first half of the Trentino that he decided to devote their lives to Aboriginal people and their evangelization.

The full contingent, soldiers and officers, gave a military tribute to the body of a year-old priest who had died of his exertions and malaria two days earlier. They accompanied him to his grave "with all the respect that was due to a man so highly esteemed", Commandant MacArthur assured John Bede Polding, the first Archbishop of Sydney.

But in the middle of the 19th century, many living in the British colony shared the views of John Dunmore Lang, the Presbyterian clergyman who held that the Pope was the anti-Christ and that the spread of the "papist superstition" in the new continent was a threat to be warded off at all costs. Who was the man for whom anti-Catholic prejudice was set aside? In addition, he drew a map of the area in which he outlined the different tribal areas with precision.

Today this map is preserved at Melbourne State Library. Mastery of the Aboriginal languages must have seemed to the priest from Trent essential for the task of evangelization. In those very years the other Italian mission at Stradbroke Island was failing, partly because of the lack of communication between the missionaries and the Aborigines. Confalonieri set to work on a dictionary of the Iwaidja language and also translated into this idiom prayers and readings from the New Testament.

In addition, he built a basic field hospital and, in treating the Aborigines during an influenza epidemic, put into practice the medical skills he had learned in Italy. However, nomadic life, loneliness and the difficulty of adapting to a climate and diet so different from those in Europe undermined Confalonieri's physical and moral constitution.

Only two years after his arrival at Port Essington, the young priest died from a fever caused by malaria. Don Angelo Confalonieri Confalonieri's Manuscripts: Navigator, Discoveer of NSW Charles Henry Coventry — Mother: Adeline Agnes Tomkins — Cultural Heritage: Aldgate, Adelaide, South Australia Christianity: Disciples or Churches of Christ, Training: Margaret Coventry ; 2.

Harold Keith Coventry ; 3. Vera Coventry ; 4. Muriel Coventry ; Janet Coventry Death: The name came at me from a corner of the page. Here was a person of little importance it seemed, a humble crew member, a walk-on extra in the life of a young gentleman naturalist, a gift for the point of view fiction often demands, the view from the underbelly. Charles Darwin was only 23 and Syms Covington barely 15 when the 'Beagle's' voyage started at the end of The vessel's papers listed Covington as ship's fiddler and boy to poop cabin.

In a short time, however, references to a 'servant' appeared in Darwin's letters and diaries. He'd found himself signed over permanently to Darwin by the Captain, Robert Fitzroy. Darwin's father, the richest man in Derbyshire, footed the bill. Now whether Covington volunteered, urged for the job, or was just available, is not known. In my novel, I have him urging, strong with ambition to live life to the full. From then on, in notes and correspondence, Darwin hardly ever referred to Covington by name, mostly just as 'my servant'.

Yet they were close. Midway through the voyage Darwin wrote to his sister back in England: It has made a great difference in my comfort; there is a standing order in the ship that no-one, excepting in civilised ports, leaves the vessel by himself.

By thus having a constant companion, I am rendered much more independent, in that most dependent of all lives, a life on board. I do not very much like him; but he is, perhaps from his very oddity, very well adapted to all my purposes.

Perhaps, I thought, we all resent those we come to depend on absolutely. Or maybe this was just a class thing.

If so, did Covington buck against his lowly station in life? Make himself uppity to the upper-class Darwin? Was it his looks, like Billy Budd in Herman Melville? An over-willingness to please? A stickiness of manner? Was it his sexuality? What might it have been in Covington's presence that evoked this negative but needful prickliness in Darwin? Fiction comes out of just this vacuum of explanation, charting a relationship whose inner life begs to be imagined.

At the same time, as Isaac Bashevis Singer has observed, a novel must be full of detail, just as music must be full of notes. So I filled myself with seafaring lore and combed through Darwin's letters and diaries catching hold of clues.

Covington learned collecting, preserving, shooting and packing skills from Darwin, slitting open birds' stomachs, poking through half-digested contents, digging bones of prehistoric animals from Patagonian river banks, hefting, carting, sorting, storing.

I gained a picture of Darwin enjoying himself and always collecting ahead of his ideas, as when he desperately wanted to bag a particular small ostrich he'd heard about, and then thoughtlessly cooked and ate one, realising too late it was the rare species he sought.

Later it was named after him, the rhea Darwinii. Novels get written the same way, I reflected. The two young men were to remain as close as man and wife, metaphorically speaking, in their cluttered lodgings on land and sea, almost constantly from to , during the entire voyage of the 'Beagle' and for the two-and-a-half crucial years following.

Covington was taxidermist, valet, trusted house-servant, clerk and copyist. He pickled fish, prepared botanical specimens, and became expert with insects and all manner of wriggling, fluttering, crawling life.

As the voyage proceeded he emerged as a prodigious collector, shooting most of Darwin's birds, including the famous finches taken on the Galapagos Islands and being responsible, it seems, for all of Darwin's insects collected during his brief sojourn in Sydney. By the end, Covington was badly deaf from all the shooting.

Darwin's archive is an immense resource. He remains the most thoroughly documented scientific genius of the 19th century. The voyage of the 'Beagle' was a period of adventure and travel forcibly linked to an intellectual drama 'far more thrilling' as Stephen Jay Gould has observed than the voyage itself, thanks to 'the impact upon human history' of the religious and scientific conflict aroused by Darwin. I wondered about that conflict cutting deep into an individual's psychological sense of himself.

He was born obscurely in Bedford, the home town of John Bunyan and religious non-conformity. Building from this lone early established fact, I created him imbued with trusting faith from childhood, coming from an older England, a stranger to the Anglicanism of the ruling order.

Darwin was half-heartedly planning to serve as a curate when he returned to England, if only he could find a parish with scope for nature study. But it was not to be. As even the sketchiest reading of The Origin of Species will reveal, Darwin became remorselessly and even aggressively atheist as time went on.

While I invented no facts around the Darwin archive, I interpreted Covington for fictional purposes by taking the known facts of his life into the realm of speculation. This applies particularly to the parts of Covington's life pre-Darwin. Also to the last year of his life, through to early , as Covington awaited the arrival in Australia of The Origin of Species and I strove in my writing for some sort of reconciliation between science and religion in the spirit of this one person, Covington.

But to allow readers interested to see where fact and fiction vary, I appended a list of sources and acknowledgements in an author's note at the back of the book. Covington's archive by comparison with Darwin's is tiny. It consists of a contested birth-date, a scrappy diary held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney, a few watercolours, a photograph, and scattered mentions in Darwin's letters and diaries.

The letters Darwin wrote to Covington later in life were especially useful clues to work backwards from. Blandly friendly on the surface, wearily nostalgic, they cannot be described as warm-hearted. Whimsically envious of Covington's financial success and improved station in life, and of the health of Covington's children, they are none the less, condescending, in my view, the letters of a distant master to a solid old servant.

Darwin sent Covington a silver ear trumpet and asked him to collect barnacles from nearby rocks, and wrote congratulating him on how well they were packed. Was there a touch of guilt in that ear trumpet? Darwin still wanted favours from Covington, and was never known for his gratitude. So, basing the novel on a true story, I wanted more from this relationship than there was on show. I wanted love, maybe as an antidote to Darwin's spiritual bleakness. For this Covington's nature had to be passionate all through.

When I looked at Covington's photograph taken in later life, I saw a stoic, embattled survivor, with a deaf man's look of waiting to be surprised and an air of almost spiritual expectation. There was a chord struck in some inner part of myself. What was Covington holding in? I wanted this man bursting into bloom behind Darwin's back for his whole life. And so the real Covington and the fictional Covington travel parallel, but not together, in my pages. As for the famous finches, which play a small but crucial part in the novel, Darwin had assumed, when they were on the Galapagos, that as the islands were close together, 'no reason was possible for their harbouring different species true to their own islands', and so, as a creationist still he had not labelled them by island.

But Covington had labelled by island the birds he had shot for his own private and potentially saleable collection. There at 36 Great Marlborough Street, Darwin sorted, listed, and wrote up the immense haul of material with Covington at his side. It was during this time that he first admitted to natural selection in private notes. Thus I propose that Covington, alone, and excluding Darwin's more illustrious contemporaries in this period after the voyage, had not just an instinct for, but a knowledge of what Darwin was grappling with in his understanding.

Then came the day in when Darwin announced his impending marriage. He presented Covington with a golden guinea, dismissed him from his service, and Covington somewhat stung, it might be imagined took ship for New South Wales. In Australia, Covington married, had the same number of children as Darwin, prospered financially, became innkeeper and postmaster at Pambula, in southern New South Wales.

He maintained his polite correspondence with Darwin over more than 20 years. Covington's side of the correspondence has been lost. Looking back over his life I have Covington obsessively ask a question: Had Darwin on their voyage found proof of natural selection as a theory able to explain life on earth as completely as creationism? More importantly, had Covington handed the proof over to Darwin, willingly and blindly?

Had there been a violation of good will? Worse, insult, from the arrangement of reality itself? Had he thus committed, as he puts it to himself, a crime against God and his own good nature? After Covington's trip on the Beagle, he then emigrated to Australia and settled as a postmaster, marrying Eliza Twyford there.

It is not clear if he was assisting Charles Darwin with this work, but FitzRoy's later account suggests that both Darwin and Covington worked at excavating the fossils,[3] and on November 3 Darwin arranged some clothing for Covington. In a letter home started on 22 May, Darwin told his father that he had decided to take Covington on as a servant — The following business piece is to my Father: We here got 80 birds and 20 quadrupeds.

His journal includes accounts ranging from his daily mundane tasks to impressions of the lands and the people he encountered, and it provides an alternative perspective to supplement Darwin's Journal and Remarks, better known as The Voyage of the Beagle. His own collection of bird specimens was invaluable in establishing the relationship of Darwin's Finches to each of the Galapagos Islands as, unlike Darwin, he had taken care to label where each specimen had been taken.

Covington remained in Darwin's service until 25 February He was able to draw on his naval connections to find employment, and by was working as a clerk at the Sydney coal depot of the Australian Agricultural Company. Around the family, with their first two sons, accepted the invitation of Captain Lloyd and moved to the South coast property at Pambula, New South Wales, which Lloyd had been given in lieu of a pension from the Royal Navy.

Darwin's letter of 23 November expressed his delight at having just received the box, which included particularly unusual species. This contributed to the extensive studies of barnacles which established Darwin as a biologist. The license was taken over by John Behl around , and the building became known as The Retreat in The Charles Darwin Trust. Charles Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle.

Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James Michael Joseph, Penguin Group. Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary. S Beagle, when he acted as servant, assistant and later clerk to Charles Darwin, the great naturalist.

On this voyage of almost five years duration Darwin began making the scientific observations which led to his far-reaching contribution to man's knowledge of biology and opened the way to its tremendous advances in modern times.

Its impact was startling to Covington and shocking to many at that time, as it went against the commonly held position, based on the book of Genesis, that man and all the animals were created by God in seven days and have never altered thereafter.

Covington maintained his belief in a created universe and the in the divine Mystery, rather than Darwin's athiestic rationality, in the origins of all creation. Voyaging London 7. Father of Pastor Ossie Cruse. La Perouse and the Eden Aboriginal community. Frances Margaret Davidson Qualities: London, England, ; d. Kuching, Borneo, 27 Apr Pioneer missionary to Borneo with the Borneo Evangelical Mission. In Davidson's family migrated to New Zealand.

Opportunities were lacking there and so after eighteen months they crossed the Tasman and began farming in Tongala, Vic.

The family was devoutly Christian his brother Hugh, for instance, became a pioneer missionary for the Assemblies of God in Papua New Guinea and Davidson was very involved in the local Anglican church, leading a Bible class. There, because of his personality and experience, he was made senior student and put in charge of the Institute's open air evangelistic work.

In May Davidson met with fellow students Carey Tolley q. There was already some Christian witness in Borneo but it was contained to the ports and coastal areas.

Davidson and the others travelled inland and worked among the Iban, Murut and Kelabit tribes. After much difficulty success crowned their efforts, with great numbers being converted. On 7 Feb he m. Edith Gray in the Residency in Limbang, Borneo. In Dec Borneo fell to the Japanese. Davidson was interned in Kuching Civilian Internment Camp where he died a few months before it was liberated.

Davidson was a leader, an evangelist and a pastor. His faith and moral stability and character had a profound effect on his fellow prisoners in Kuching as well as on the Ibans, Muruts and Kelabits.

Presbyterian, broad church muscular Good Samaritanism Qualities: May to Melbourne Theatre of Activity: Critic of native policy of Govt; 3. Position Protector of Aborigines Works: Memorial grave of 'Eel Spear' Wombeetch Puuyuun d. Prosperity and an expanding dairy herd caused him to move in to the Western District where he took up a cattle-run near Port Fairy.

Dawson lost ground in the depression of the s and, although he attempted to survive by using a boiling-down plant, he was declared bankrupt in However, he continued on the land, profited in the gold rushes and sold his station in and leased land near Camperdown where he lived for the rest of his life as a farmer, amateur taxidermist and protector, friend and student of the Aboriginals.

His only child, Isabella, helped him in his studies. A Presbyterian, he died at Camperdown on 19 April Dawson is remembered as an amateur ethnographer his Australian Aborigines. He was appointed a protector of Aborigines and gave evidence to the royal commission on their condition, severely criticizing the assumptions upon which current native policy was based and its results. He considered that the Aboriginals were entitled to government support without obligation, and that it was unfair to restrict their movements and to press unpalatable employment and religion upon them.

In the s Dawson collected money from the settlers around Camperdown for a monument to the last local Aboriginals; it stands in the Camperdown cemetery. An acquaintance later recalled that, when some settlers refused to contribute, Dawson rushed to Melbourne with an account he had written of the early ill treatment of the Aboriginals. He demanded that the Argus editor, Frederick Haddon, publish this attack on the settlers but was refused: Dawson was well known locally as an irascible teller-of-tales about the maltreatment of the Aboriginals, and his book clearly reflects his sympathy for them.

On some subjects, particularly on the nature of authority within the Aboriginal community, the book is unreliable, as Edward Curr was the first to show. Dawson got much of his information from the detribalized Aboriginals at the Framlingham reserve. In his desire to put them in a good light, he often pleaded their case to unsympathetic officials.

He dedicated his book to this 'ill-used and interesting people', and his reputation as their sincere friend is secure. Champion of the rights of the under-privileged. After graduating he practised medicine at Glasgow. On board he met and became engaged to Irene Isabella Young, an Australian returning home from England, and decided that his future lay in Australia.

Back in Scotland he assisted in a practice that served four mining villages; his observations of poverty and suffering there were to influence his later concern for social justice. He practised in the Wimmera township of Minyip before moving to Adelaide in He treated casualties in the Middle East March-July before returning to Australia in a hospital ship. His AIF appointment terminated on 5 October.

After a trip to Scotland in for postgraduate study he bought a house at Magill, Adelaide, where he set up practice, while also working as a surgeon at the Memorial Hospital, North Adelaide. Duguid undertook further medical study in Britain in His wife, returning home separately with their son, died suddenly at sea. In he met Phyllis Evelyn Lade, daughter of Rev. Frank Lade and an English teacher at Presbyterian Girls College, of which he was a councillor That year he was elected a fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

A patient, who was a missionary in the Northern Territory, had told Duguid of abuses suffered by Aborigines there. In he decided to visit Darwin and look into the situation himself.

Arriving by train at Alice Springs in July, he was asked to perform emergency surgery and, having missed his connection to Darwin, stayed in the area for over three weeks. He was appalled by the treatment that he saw meted out to Aborigines, and by their poor living conditions. Albrecht had suggested that he investigate conditions in the Musgrave Ranges, in north-western South Australia. In June, with R. Williams, he journeyed to Ernabella, a pastoral lease, and for the first time met Pitjantjatjara people—thus beginning a relationship with them that was to last for fifty years.

Gilpin, a part-Aboriginal youth, guided him farther west. Duguid was again disturbed by his observations of discrimination and of abuse of Aboriginal workers and women, and by evidence of increasing health problems. In he visited Haasts Bluff, west of Hermannsburg, with Albrecht. That year, despite opposition from some influential members, including Rev. With support from the government of South Australia, Ernabella Mission was founded in Duguid and his wife also took an interest in the children of mixed descent living in Cole-brook Home, Quorn, run by the United Aborigines Mission.

Duguid was to maintain contact with them into adulthood and to assist their struggle for equality with White people. Harry Taylor, the superintendent of Ernabella. Soon afterwards they heard of the British proposal to test guided weapons over South Australia from a base to be built at Woomera. Concerned about the impact of the rocket range on the inhabitants of the Central Australian reserves, Duguid criticised the scheme at public meetings in Adelaide and, with Donald Thomson, in Melbourne.

Duguid resigned from the Aborigines Protection Board when it approved the proposal, but as a result of the protests a patrol officer, Walter MacDougall, was appointed at Woomera.

During a measles epidemic at Ernabella in Duguid helped to care for the sick. In he reported on health needs of Aborigines in the Northern Territory.

President of the Aborigines Advancement League of South Australia, in he arranged a meeting in the Adelaide Town Hall at which five Aborigines spoke of their experiences. One told of discrimination against young Aboriginal women applying for entrance to nursing training at Royal Adelaide Hospital.

The Duguids supported moves to break down this barrier. Another outcome of the meeting was the establishment in by the AAL of Wiltja Hostel at Millswood, to accommodate Aboriginal country girls attending secondary schools in Adelaide. Following a motorcar accident in he retired as a surgeon and took up an interest in geriatric medicine. He and his wife were leaders of a campaign that in resulted in the repealing of a clause in the Police Offences Act which had enabled police to arrest Aborigines for consorting with non-Aborigines.

That year he was elected inaugural president of the Federal Council for Aboriginal Advancement. Stubborn in defence of the rights of the under-privileged, and sometimes impetuous, Duguid fought for justice and fiercely opposed hypocrisy and incompetence in the administration of Aboriginal affairs.

By the s, however, Aboriginal leaders in organisations such as the FCAA were objecting to the assimilationist approach of Duguid and other white campaigners, considering it paternalistic. In Duguid was appointed OBE. Next year he received what he considered his greatest honour: In he attended a meeting in Adelaide at which Pitjantjatjara people met with members of parliament to press their claim for recognition of their land rights, which was granted in The Ernabella choir made a special visit to Adelaide to sing at his hundredth birthday.

He died on 5 December in his home at Kent Town and was buried in the Ernabella Mission cemetery. Duncan's early ability encouraged his parents to suppose that he might join the Presbyterian ministry, but in adolescence his unaided reading caused him to enter the Roman Catholic church.

The Benedictine order attracted Duncan and he studied at Blairs. Having quarrelled with his teachers he withdrew, and for five years was a bookseller and publisher in Aberdeen. He agitated for the Reform Act of When his business failed he did some journalism and teaching.

Duncan taught first at Maitland, and there engaged in his first colonial controversy , repudiating an Anglican minister's designation of the Pope as 'the man of sin' Correspondence Between the Rev. Mr Stack … and W. Duncan … and A Reply to the Reverend W. In he became foundation editor of the Roman Catholic Australasian Chronicle, published in Sydney. Its columns ably expounded the rights, not only of the church, but of other out-groups, especially small farmers and working men.

Duncan saw the established landowners as Australia's bane, falsely claiming to be an aristocracy. Against their pretensions he urged the growth of representative institutions in which the popular voice would assert itself. His chief ally among colonial politicians was the radical Henry Macdermott. Politics never swamped Duncan's cultural interests.

Adept in Latin, Greek, Italian, French and Spanish, he read widely in modern and classical literatures. Translated from the Italian of Silvio Pellico and in , expressing another love, wrote two patriotic songs which Isaac Nathan set to music.

Duncan's skill did not save him from conflict with his co-religionists. He disliked the ex-convict parvenu Irish who dominated the Sydney laity and financed the Chronicle.

In the tension which developed between them and the English Benedictine bishop, John Bede Polding, his sympathies were strong with Polding. Polding being abroad, Duncan's critics, egged on, he alleged, by his political enemy, William Charles Wentworth, forced him from the editor's chair late in , provoking his An Appeal from the Unjust Decision of the Very Rev.

Vicar General Sydney, In Duncan also published three polemical Letters, which answered Robert Allwood's criticism of Polding's assumption of a territorial title. Yet Polding did not reinstate Duncan to the Chronicle and the two thereafter were alienated. Its literary columns revealed him as an intelligent critic and the patron, publisher and friend of colonial poets , especially Charles Harpur and Sir Henry Parkes. As editor Duncan stressed the liberal quality of his Catholicism.

He deplored the tendency, strongest among the Irish but apparent even in Polding, to emphasize the alienation of Catholics from the community at large. Especially he disputed the church's antagonism to non-denominational education. Other leading articles, some reprinted as pamphlets On Self-Supporting Agricultural Working Unions and A Practical Treatise on the … Olive-Tree, Sydney, , praised close-knit rural life in a manner characteristic of much Catholic social thought.

His campaign against the dominance of any narrow class interest continued, although squatters now replaced landowners as his major enemy. He stood firm, but not, as sometimes said, alone, beside Governor Sir George Gipps in the land controversy of The squatters' hostility might have contributed to financial troubles which forced the Register to close in December Gipps offered a post as customs officer at Moreton Bay and, to the cry of jobbery, Duncan accepted in May Thereafter Duncan earned his living in the customs service.

At Brisbane he filled many subsidiary posts including deputy-sheriff, immigration officer, chairman of the Steam Navigation Board, commissioner of the peace, and water police magistrate. His diligence and ability were as marked as ever, and won him appointment as the New South Wales collector of customs in May The most eventful episode in this position occurred in , when Duncan left office during a complex dispute in which the Customs Department became a topic of political controversy.

However, he soon returned to his post, continuing in it until On retirement he was appointed a C. Duncan's success in an uncongenial job best proved his human quality. Moreover he always continued wider interests: His Lecture on National Education was the first pamphlet printed in Brisbane, and he was founding president of the School of Arts there In he published A Plea for the New South Wales Constitution, which criticized radical extremists who were already arguing for the replacement of the nominated Legislative Council by an elective body.

Although denying any change of principle, Duncan now sympathized with Wentworth's plan for a local nobility. As a liberal churchman he engaged in controversies with both Polding and Roger Vaughan , and sat on the National Board of Education and later the Council of Education.

Sydney, translated a biographical sketch of a priest who had worked in Oceania and New South Wales. They had a son, Lewis and six daughters, one of whom, Mary, became a member of the convent of the Sisters of Charity.

It is interesting to speculate how much he was driven by a desire to make amends for an unfortunate event that is outlined below. Several days later his body was buried in the London Road Cemetery and a headstone placed upon his grave as a memorial by those who knew him. In part it read 'Sacred to the memory of William Wimmera an Australian boy Rare, because the grave it marks shares a common history with only a handful of other known graves in cemeteries across Britain- it contains the remains of an indigenous Australian.

The oldest burial site of an indigenous Australian in Britain is the grave of Yemmerrawanie Yemmerrawanyea , a year-old native of the Eora tribe who died on May 18, With Bennelong he was one of the first two indigenous Australians to visit England. Within a year Yemmerrawanie was dead and his body interred in the churchyard of St. John the Bapfist at Eltham, Kent.

He was about nine years old when he arrived in London aboard the Symmetry in Warrulan was the son of a tribal chief in the Colony of South Australia and had been brought to England by Edward John Eyre, the noted explorer.

He and a companion were presented to Queen Victoria in January Following Eyre's appointment and departure to New Zealand as LieutenantGovernor, Warrulan remained in England where his benefactors placed him in an agricultural school at Sibford, in Oxfordshire.

He later moved to Banbury where he learnt saddlery and harness work before joining the harness manufacturing firm of J. He also was aged about 19 years when he died from the effects of exposure on October

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