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Mayence is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate , Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz is an independent city with a population of , and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Mainz was founded by the Romans in the 1st Century BC during the Classical antiquity era, serving as a military fortress on the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire and as the provincial capital of Germania Superior.
Mainz is famous as the home of Johannes Gutenberg , the inventor of the movable-type printing press , who in the early s manufactured his first books in the city, including the Gutenberg Bible. Historically, before the 20th century, the city was known in English as Mentz and in French as Mayence. Today, Mainz is a transport hub and a center of wine production.
Mainz is located on the 50th latitude, on the left bank of the river Rhine , opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine. The population in the early was ,, an additional 18, people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area comprising 5. Mainz can easily be reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway Line S8.
Mainz is a river port city as the Rhine which connects with its main tributaries, such as the Neckar , the Main and, later, the Moselle and thereby continental Europe with the Port of Rotterdam and thus the North Sea.
Mainz's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to the Rhine historically handling much of the region's waterborne cargo.
Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is located on the North Side of the town. The river also provides another positive effect, moderating Mainz's climate; making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer. After the last ice age , sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city.
The Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area. Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine. As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years later the account of the death and funeral of Nero Claudius Drusus , though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier.
Main is from Latin Menus , the name the Romans used for the river. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum. However, it had also become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance.
The Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons Mogounus, Moguns, Mogonino , for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times, probably due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine. The town of Mogontiacum grew up between the fort and the river.
Mainz was also a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica. A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater was discovered in  and is open to the public. Among the famous buildings were the largest theatre north of the Alps and a bridge across the Rhine. The city was also the site of the assassination of emperor Severus Alexander in Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in From the last day of  or , the Siling and Asding Vandals , the Suebi , the Alans , and other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine , possibly at Mainz.
Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus. The way was open to the sack of Trier and the invasion of Gaul. Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which is a testimony to Roman military judgement. Different structures were built there at different times.
The current citadel originated in , but it replaced previous forts. It was used in World War II. One of the sights at the citadel is still the cenotaph raised by legionaries to commemorate their Drusus.
Through a series of incursions during the 4th century Alsace gradually lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic tribes among Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly influenced by the Alamanni. The Romans repeatedly reasserted control; however, the troops stationed at Mainz became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors had only one or two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included chiefly peoples of the northern frontier.
By that time the army included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic confederacies along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the Saxons and the Franks. The Franks were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation among the Belgae of the lower Rhine during the 3rd century and repeatedly attempted to extend their influence upstream.
In the emperor Julian bought peace by giving them most of Germania Inferior , which they possessed anyway, and imposing service in the Roman army in exchange. He used Hunnic troops a number of times.
Attila went through Alsace in , devastating the country and destroying Mainz and Triers with their Roman garrisons. As far as the north was concerned this was the effective end of the Roman empire there. His father was a Suebian; his mother, a princess of the Visigoths. Patrician did not rule the north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned independently. The capital was at Soissons. Even then its status was equivocal.
Many insisted it was the Kingdom of Soissons. His son, Merovaeus , fought on the Roman side against Attila, and his son, Childeric , served in the domain of Soissons.
Meanwhile, the Franks were gradually infiltrating and assuming power in this domain. They also moved up the Rhine and created a domain in the region of the former Germania Superior with capital at Cologne. They became known as the Ripuarian Franks as opposed to the Salian Franks.
It is unlikely that much of a population transfer or displacement occurred. The former Belgae simply became Franks. Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. Clovis, son of Childeric, became king of the Salians in , ruling from Tournai. In he defeated Syagrius , last governor of the Soissons domain, and took northern France. He extended his reign to Cambrai and Tongeren in —, and repelled the Alamanni in Also in that year he converted to non-Arian Christianity.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in , the Franks under the rule of Clovis I gained control over western Europe by the year Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne in Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish kingdom.
Mainz had sheltered a Christian community long before the conversion of Clovis. His successor Dagobert I reinforced the walls of Mainz and made it one of his seats. A solidus of Theodebert I — was minted at Mainz.
Charlemagne — , through a succession of wars against other tribes, built a vast Frankian empire in Europe. Mainz from its central location became important to the empire and to Christianity.
Meanwhile, language change was gradually working to divide the Franks. Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian. On the death of Charlemagne, distinctions between France and Germany began to be made. Mainz was not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine.
The first archbishop in Mainz, Boniface , was killed in while trying to convert the Frisians to Christianity and is buried in Fulda. Boniface held a personal title of archbishop; Mainz became a regular archbishopric see in , when Boniface's successor Lullus was granted the pallium by Pope Adrian I. Harald Klak , king of Jutland, his family and followers, were baptized at Mainz in , in the abbey of St. From the time of Willigis until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in , the Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven Electors of the German emperor.
Besides Rome, the diocese of Mainz today is the only diocese in the world with an episcopal see that is called a Holy See sancta sedes. The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were primas germaniae , the substitutes of the Pope north of the Alps. In , Archbishop Siegfried III granted Mainz a city charter, which included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city council.
The city saw a feud between two archbishops in , namely Diether von Isenburg , who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau , who had been named archbishop for Mainz by the pope.
In , the Archbishop Adolf raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf.
Those who would not promise to follow Adolf amongst them Johannes Gutenberg were driven out of the town or thrown into prison. The new archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the city under his direct rule.
Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope. The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century AD. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah — taught there, among others.
He concentrated on the study of the Talmud , creating a German Jewish tradition. Mainz is also the legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz , composer of the Unetanneh Tokef prayer. The Jews of Mainz, Speyer and Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the 12th century. The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them.
Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were persecuted. The Jews were expelled in , after which they were invited to return , and in Jews were attacked in and by mobs in Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred, such as the burning of about 6, Jews alive in Nowadays the Jewish community is growing rapidly, and a new synagogue by the architect Manuel Herz was constructed in on the site of the one destroyed by the Nazis on Kristallnacht in
Documentary evidence suggests that a bath-house, a bakehouse and the hospital were already in existence before The courtyard next to the synagogue served as a place for consultations and decisions about the community's affairs. The museum relates the history of Speyer's Jewish population, and exhibits gravestones, other remnants and the Lingenfeld Treasure ca.
A Jewish community is believed to have existed in Worms as early as the 10th century. A first synagogue of the community that settled close to the city's northern wall, close to its commercial centre, is known to have existed in The synagogue dating from , the women's synagogue from , the ritual bath from which has survived largely in its original form, and the Rashi college yeshiva , often called the Rashi chapel, dating from have been preserved. Above the cellars of the mediaeval dancing house, the Rashi House was built in , accommodating the Jewish Museum and the city archives.
The foundations of other municipal buildings dating back to the Middle Ages — a bakehouse, a hot bath and a hospital — have not yet been excavated. A preserved original inscription provides information about the completion of the first documented synagogue in the early autumn of In , a new building was constructed partly on the synagogue's foundations, still in place after the destruction during the Crusades.
While its interior dates back to the Romanesque period, the exterior underwent a Gothic transformation. The design of the walls, featuring two high-up Gothic lancet windows and oculi arranged below them, dates back to the restoration work after the pogrom of and is typical of synagogue construction of that period. A new element — which was characteristic of synagogue construction after — is the twin-nave design already evident in a Christian context in town halls or areas inside cloister buildings , which was taken up in synagogues built at a later date, e.
Accordingly, the twin-nave layout, along with the construction of a room for Jewish worship, thus appears to have become a preferred design in Jewish religious buildings earlier than in the construction of Christian churches, where the twin-nave model only became established with the mendicant orders' churches in the 13th century.
It is highly probable that craftsmen working on the cathedral were also involved in the synagogue's construction. In particular, the quality of the two central pillars with their intricately sculpted capitals, which dominate the six-vault interior, lends weight to this hypothesis.
In , the synagogue was extended on the north side with the women's synagogue, a slightly lower building that could be entered through its own gate. Worms' women's synagogue, with its inscribed construction date, is the oldest known example of its kind.
As in Speyer, women could follow the service going on in the men's synagogue through listening windows. When the synagogue was modified in , the dividing wall between the two previously distinct spaces was removed. The shape of the largely intact Romanesque mikvah dating from follows its predecessor in Speyer. Two steep staircases lead down to the water basin, which is some seven metres below ground level. The synagogue complex was set on fire and destroyed on 10 November Until its destruction, the synagogue, which until then had been in constant use, was one of the oldest and most important synagogues in Europe.
The foundation walls and most of the construction material were preserved. The reconstruction of was based on rescued remnants of its architecture, old photographs and pictures of the building, and by applying established archaeological principles. Mainz, the oldest of the ShUM communities, was home to the biggest Jewish community north of the Alps until the 11th century.
The centre of the community, stretching back to the 10th century, was not far from the cathedral and the market square. Written sources attest to the existence of a synagogue, a ritual bath, a bakehouse, a dancing house and a hospital. These buildings are no longer in existence but their approximate position has been established.
Valuable original artefacts, including the oldest datable Jewish gravestone in central Europe from can be found in the Mainz State Museum's Judaica collection. The mediaeval Judensand cemetery in Mainz attests to the outstanding importance of the Jewish community in Mainz. It was defiled in pogroms and after forced expulsions, and some of its gravestones were used as building material, but topological data document the cemetery's expansion.
Apart from a few peripheral areas partly built on in modern times, the graves have been preserved. The northeastern sector served as a burial ground until the end of the 19th century, with around 1, gravestones standing on it dating from the late 17th century. Here, around mediaeval gravestones that were recovered in the 19th and 20th centuries have been re-erected. In , another 29 gravestones and fragments were uncovered and put in safe keeping.
The eight gravestones with inscriptions from the 11th century are among the oldest in Ashkenaz, the region encompassing Germany, northern France, northern Italy, and later also Eastern Europe.
Many of the rediscovered gravestones and memorial stones commemorate martyrs and scholars, including Gershom ben Judah ca. Of the 1, gravestones on the original site, around are from the Middle Ages, with the oldest dating from On the adjacent site to the west are 1, more gravestones dating from the 18th century to the early 20th century.
The systematic surveying and exploration of the site of the cemetery in Worms and its gravestones, which was resumed several years ago, has unearthed some significant new findings, including details about the community's buildings.
Indeed, to this day the cemetery in Worms is visited by Jews from all over the world because of the prominent Jews buried there. In Speyer, where a Jewish settlement was established no later than , so far about 50 of the gravestones in the cemetery that stopped being used in the 16th century have been recovered. In the centres of Speyer and Worms, some unique Jewish buildings of outstanding universal value have survived.
They document in unique detail the creation and emergence of exemplary structural forms that influenced the architecture of the Jewish communities of mediaeval cities for several centuries.
The synagogues, women's synagogues and ritual baths are outstanding early examples of architectural styles that were recreated in Jewish ritual buildings in Central and Eastern Europe for several hundred years and which reflect the changing needs and ideas of the Jewish minority in Germany e.
Daily Life in the World of Charlemagne. Translated by Jo Ann McNamara. University of Pennsylvania Press. History of the Hour: Clocks and Modern Temporal Orders. University of Chicago Press. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 4 March Cambridge Companion to Choral Music. Cambridge Companions to Music. Music publishers of the 18th to the early 20th c.
Landesmuseums Mainz in German. States of South Germany: Samuel Leigh William Henry Overall , ed. Data provided by Opta Sports. Adler 33 years old 0 0. Zentner 24 years old 1 0. Huth 24 years old 0 0. Dahmen 20 years old 0 0. Donati 28 years old 0 0. Bell 27 years old 8 0. Brosinski 30 years old 7 0. Niakhate 22 years old 9 0. Mwene 24 years old 5 0. Bussmann 27 years old 1 0.
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